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  1. null (Ed.)
    Nonlinear time history analyses were conducted for 5-story and 12-story prototype buildings that used post-tensioned cross-laminated timber rocking walls coupled with U-shaped flexural plates (UFPs) as the lateral force resisting system. The building models were subjected to 22 far-field and 28 near-fault ground motions, with and without directivity effects, scaled to the design earthquake and maximum considered earthquake for Seattle, with ASCE Site Class D. The buildings were designed to performance objectives that limited structural damage to crushing at the wall toes and nonlinear deformation in the UFPs, while ensuring code-based interstory drift requirements were satisfied and the post-tensioned rods remained linear. The walls of the 12-story building had a second rocking joint at midheight to reduce flexural demands in the lower stories and interstory drift in the upper stories. The interstory drift, in-plane wall shear and overturning moment, UFP deformation, and extent of wall toe crushing is summarized for each building. Near-fault ground motions with directivity effects resulted in the largest demands for the 5-story building, while the midheight rocking joint diminished the influence of ground motion directivity effects in the 12-story building. Results for both buildings confirmed that UFPs located higher from the base of the walls dissipated more energy compared to UFPs closer to the base. 
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  2. Blass, Hans (Ed.)
    Wood buildings in North American has been predominantly constructed using light-framed wood systems since early 1900’s, with only limited exception of heavy timber construction in some non-residential applications. This situation is likely to change in the future with the growing acceptance of mass timber construction in the region. In fact, a number of mass timber buildings have been constructed in recent years in the U.S. and Canada, including low- to mid-rise mixed-use buildings (e.g. UMass Student Center, T3 building) and tall towers (e.g. Brocks Commons at UBC). Most of these buildings utilized cross laminated timber (CLT) or nail laminated timber (NLT) floors and heavy timber framing systems to support gravity loads, and a non-wood lateral system such as concrete shear walls or a braced steel frame to resist wind and seismic loads. Although CLT material and glulam products have been recognized in the U.S. and Canada (IBC (2018) and NBCC (2015), there is currently no mass timber lateral systems in the U.S. and only one system (platform style panelized CLT shear wall) in Canada that is currently recognized by the building codes. As a result, special design procedures and review/approval processes must be followed for any building intended to use a mass timber lateral system. There is a need to promote codification of mass timber lateral systems in order to help further develop mass timber building market in North American. At the time of this paper, there has been an on-going effort to devel-op seismic design parameters for panelized CLT shear walls in the U.S. (ref) following the FEMA P695 procedure for platform construction. The other lateral system that at-tracted significant attention and research resources is post-tensioned CLT rocking wall system, which has the potential to be applicable to balloon framed low-rise to tall wood buildings. This paper will focus on recent research development on CLT rocking wall system in the U.S. and the effort to develop a seismic design procedure for this system for inclusion in the NDS Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic (SPDWS)(2008). While the expensive and time consuming process of the FEMA P695 process would provide the ability to use the equivalent lateral force method for design purposes, this path is not part of the discussion included here. 
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  3. Abstract

    We use high‐resolution lidar microtopographic data and luminescence dating to constrain incremental Holocene–latest Pleistocene slip rates for the Wairau fault, a major dextral strike‐slip fault in the Marlborough Fault System, South Island, New Zealand. Our data come from two closely spaced study areas along the structurally simple, central portion of the fault: The well‐known Branch River terrace flight, and a previously undated series of offset risers and channel features several km to the east that we refer to as the Dunbeath site. Field work and mapping using lidar‐derived topography yields revised or novel measurements of nine fault offsets. We date those features using a post‐IR50‐IRSL225infrared stimulated luminescence dating method, and a stratigraphically informed Bayesian age model. The dated slip history of the Wairau fault is further constrained using newly cataloged offset measurements collected along a ∼35 km stretch of the fault, and available paleoseismic data. Incremental slip rates are precisely computed using a Monte Carlo resampling scheme. Our results provide a nearly earthquake‐by‐earthquake record of incremental slip, with pronounced variations in incremental slip rate spanning multiple millennia and tens of m of slip. These extreme, multi‐millennial variations in fault slip rate have basic implications for earthquake occurrence, plate boundary lithosphere behavior, and probabilistic seismic hazard assessment.

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