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  1. Although some existing counterdrone measures can disrupt the invasion of certain consumer drone, to the best of our knowledge, none of them can accurately redirect it to a given location for defense. In this paper, we proposed a Drone Position Manipulation (DPM) attack to address this issue by utilizing the vulnerabilities of control and navigation algorithms used on consumer drones. As such drones usually depend on GPS for autopiloting, we carefully spoof GPS signals based on where we want to redirect a drone to, such that we indirectly affect its position estimates that are used by its navigation algorithm. By carefully manipulating these states, we make a drone gradually move to a path based on our requirements. This unique attack exploits the entire stack of sensing, state estimation, and navigation control together for quantitative manipulation of flight paths, different from all existing methods. In addition, we have formally analyzed the feasible range of redirected destinations for a given target. Our evaluation on open-source ArduPilot system shows that DPM is able to not only accurately lead a drone to a redirected destination but also achieve a large redirection range.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Abstract

    We present a sample of Type Icn supernovae (SNe Icn), a newly discovered class of transients characterized by their interaction with H- and He-poor circumstellar material (CSM). This sample is the largest collection of SNe Icn to date and includes observations of two published objects (SN 2019hgp and SN 2021csp) and two objects not yet published in the literature (SN 2019jc and SN 2021ckj). The SNe Icn display a range of peak luminosities, rise times, and decline rates, as well as diverse late-time spectral features. To investigate their explosion and progenitor properties, we fit their bolometric light curves to a semianalytical model consisting of luminosity inputs from circumstellar interaction and radioactive decay of56Ni. We infer low ejecta masses (≲2M) and56Ni masses (≲0.04M) from the light curves, suggesting that normal stripped-envelope supernova (SESN) explosions within a dense CSM cannot be the underlying mechanism powering SNe Icn. Additionally, we find that an estimate of the star formation rate density at the location of SN 2019jc lies at the lower end of a distribution of SESNe, in conflict with a massive star progenitor of this object. Based on its estimated ejecta mass,56Ni mass, and explosion site properties, we suggest a low-mass, ultra-strippedmore »star as the progenitor of SN 2019jc. For other SNe Icn, we suggest that a Wolf–Rayet star progenitor may better explain their observed properties. This study demonstrates that multiple progenitor channels may produce SNe Icn and other interaction-powered transients.

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  3. Ascospores generated during sexual reproduction are the primary inoculum for the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum. Purine metabolism is known to play important roles in fungal pathogens but its lifecycle stage-specific regulation is unclear. By characterizing the genes involved in purine de novo and salvage biosynthesis pathways, we showed that de novo syntheses of inosine, adenosine and guanosine monophosphates (IMP, AMP and GMP) are important for vegetative growth, sexual/asexual reproduction, and infectious growth, whereas purine salvage synthesis is dispensable for these stages in F. graminearum. Addition of GMP rescued the defects of the Fgimd1 mutant in vegetative growth and conidiation but not sexual reproduction, whereas addition of AMP rescued all of these defects of the Fgade12 mutant, suggesting that the function of de novo synthesis of GMP rather than AMP is distinct in sexual stages. Moreover, Acd1, an ortholog of AMP deaminase, is dispensable for growth but essential for ascosporogenesis and pathogenesis, suggesting that AMP catabolism has stage-specific functions during sexual reproduction and infectious growth. The expression of almost all the genes involved in de novo purine synthesis is downregulated during sexual reproduction and infectious growth relative to vegetative growth. This study revealed that F. graminearum has stage-specific regulation ofmore »purine metabolism during infectious growth and sexual reproduction.« less
  4. Abstract We present deep Chandra X-ray observations of two nearby Type Ia supernovae, SN 2017cbv and SN 2020nlb, which reveal no X-ray emission down to a luminosity L X ≲ 5.3 × 10 37 and ≲ 5.4 × 10 37 erg s −1 (0.3–10 keV), respectively, at ∼16–18 days after the explosion. With these limits, we constrain the pre-explosion mass-loss rate of the progenitor system to be M ̇ < 7.2 × 10 −9 and < 9.7 × 10 −9 M ⊙ yr −1 for each (at a wind velocity v w = 100 km s −1 and a radius of R ≈ 10 16 cm), assuming any X-ray emission would originate from inverse Compton emission from optical photons upscattered by the supernova shock. If the supernova environment was a constant-density medium, we would find a number density limit of n CSM < 36 and < 65 cm −3 , respectively. These X-ray limits rule out all plausible symbiotic progenitor systems, as well as large swathes of parameter space associated with the single degenerate scenario, such as mass loss at the outer Lagrange point and accretion winds. We also present late-time optical spectroscopy of SN 2020nlb, and set strong limitsmore »on any swept up hydrogen ( L H α < 2.7 × 10 37 erg s −1 ) and helium ( L He, λ 6678 < 2.7 × 10 37 erg s −1 ) from a nondegenerate companion, corresponding to M H ≲ 0.7–2 × 10 −3 M ⊙ and M He ≲ 4 × 10 −3 M ⊙ . Radio observations of SN 2020nlb at 14.6 days after explosion also yield a non-detection, ruling out most plausible symbiotic progenitor systems. While we have doubled the sample of normal Type Ia supernovae with deep X-ray limits, more observations are needed to sample the full range of luminosities and subtypes of these explosions, and set statistical constraints on their circumbinary environments.« less
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 2, 2023
  7. null (Ed.)