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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 24, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Adding Fe3O4nanoparticles to composites of [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) spin-crossover polymer and polyaniline (PANI) drives a phase separation of both and restores the molecular structure and cooperative effects of the spin-crossover polymer without compromising the increased conductivity gained through the addition of PANI. We observe an increased on-off ratio for the DC conductivity owing to an enlarged off state resistivity and a 20 times larger AC conductivity of the on state compared with DC values. The Fe3O4nanoparticles, primarily confined to the [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) phase, are ferromagnetically coupled to the local moment of the spin-crossover molecule suggesting the existence of an exchange interaction between both components.

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  3. Spin crossover complexes are a route toward designing molecular devices with a facile readout due to the change in conductance that accompanies the change in spin state. Because substrate effects are important for any molecular device, there are increased efforts to characterize the influence of the substrate on the spin state transition. Several classes of spin crossover molecules deposited on different types of surface, including metallic and non-metallic substrates, are comprehensively reviewed here. While some non-metallic substrates like graphite seem to be promising from experimental measurements, theoretical and experimental studies indicate that 2D semiconductor surfaces will have minimum interaction with spin crossover molecules. Most metallic substrates, such as Au and Cu, tend to suppress changes in spin state and affect the spin state switching process due to the interaction at the molecule–substrate interface that lock spin crossover molecules in a particular spin state or mixed spin state. Of course, the influence of the substrate on a spin crossover thin film depends on the molecular film thickness and perhaps the method used to deposit the molecular film. 
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  4. Abstract

    While induced spin polarization of a palladium (Pd) overlayer on antiferromagnetic and magneto-electric Cr2O3(0001) is possible because of the boundary polarization at the Cr2O3(0001), in the single domain state, the Pd thin film appears to be ferromagnetic on its own, likely as a result of strain. In the conduction band, we find the experimental evidence of ferromagnetic spin polarized in Pd thin films on a Cr2O3(0001) single crystal, especially in the thin limit, Pd thickness of around 1–4 nm. Indeed there is significant spin polarization in 10 Å thick Pd films on Cr2O3(0001) at 310 K, i.e. above the Néel temperature of bulk Cr2O3. While Cr2O3(0001) has surface moments that tend to align along the surface normal, for Pd on Cr2O3, the spin polarization contains an in-plane component. Strain in the Pd adlayer on Cr2O3(0001) appears correlated to the spin polarization measured in spin polarized inverse photoemission spectroscopy. Further evidence for magnetization of Pd on Cr2O3is provided by measurement of the exchange bias fields in Cr2O3/Pd(buffer)/[Co/Pd]nexchange bias systems. The magnitude of the exchange bias field is, over a wide temperature range, virtually unaffected by the Pd thickness variation between 1 and 2 nm.

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  5. NiCo2O4 (NCO) films grown on MgAl2O4 (001) substrates have been studied using magnetometry and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism based on x-ray absorption spectroscopy and spin-polarized inverse photoemission spectroscopy with various thicknesses down to 1.6 nm. The magnetic behavior can be understood in terms of a layer of optimal NCO and an interfacial layer (1.2 ± 0.1 nm), with a small canting of magnetization at the surface. The thickness dependence of the optimal layer can be described by the finite-scaling theory with a critical exponent consistent with the high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The interfacial layer couples antiferromagnetically to the optimal layer, generating exchange-spring styled magnetic hysteresis in the thinnest films. The non-optimal and measurement-speed-dependent magnetic properties of the interfacial layer suggest substantial interfacial diffusion.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 21, 2024
  6. Few-layered HfS3nanoribbons exhibit n-type conductivity and a large photoresponse to visible light. The photocurrent strongly depends on the polarization direction of the excitation laser due to the highly anisotropic quasi-1D crystal structure of HfS3.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 20, 2024
  7. The coordination chemistry of uranyl ions with surface immobilized peptides was studied using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). All the peptides in the study were modified using a six-carbon alkanethiol as a linker on a gold substrate with methylene blue as the redox label. The X-ray photoemission spectra reveal that each modified peptide interacts differently with the uranyl ion. For all the modified peptides, the XPS spectra were taken in both the absence and presence of the uranium, and their comparison reveals that the interaction depends on the chemical group present in the peptides. The XPS results show that, among all the modified peptides in the current study, the (arginine)9 (R9) modified peptide showed the largest response to uranium. In the order of response to uranium, the second largest response was shown by the modified (arginine)6 (R6) peptide followed by the modified (lysine)6 (K6) peptide. Other modified peptides, (alanine)6 (A6), (glutamic acid)6 (E6) and (serine)6 (S6), did not show any response to uranium. 
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  8. Abstract

    In this work, we provide clear evidence of magnetic anisotropy in the local orbital moment of a molecular thin film based on the SCO complex [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(bipy)] (pz = pyrazol−1−yl, bipy = 2,2′−bipyridine). Field dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements indicate that the magnetic easy axis for the orbital moment is along the surface normal direction. Along with the presence of a critical field, our observation points to the existence of an anisotropic energy barrier in the high-spin state. The estimated nonzero coupling constant of ∼2.47 × 10−5eV molecule−1indicates that the observed magnetocrystalline anisotropy is mostly due to spin–orbit coupling. The spin- and orbital-component anisotropies are determined to be 30.9 and 5.04 meV molecule−1, respectively. Furthermore, the estimatedgfactor in the range of 2.2–2.45 is consistent with the expected values. This work has paved the way for an understanding of the spin-state-switching mechanism in the presence of magnetic perturbations.

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  9. Abstract

    Using optical characterization, it is evident that the spin state of the spin crossover molecular complex [Fe{H2B(pz)2}2(bipy)] (pz = tris(pyrazol-1-1y)-borohydride, bipy = 2,2ʹ-bipyridine) depends on the electric polarization of the adjacent polymer ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) thin film. The role of the PVDF-HFP thin film is significant but complex. The UV–Vis spectroscopy measurements reveals that room temperature switching of the electronic structure of [Fe{H2B(pz)2}2(bipy)] molecules in bilayers of PVDF-HFP/[Fe{H2B(pz)2}2(bipy)] occurs as a function of ferroelectric polarization. The retention of voltage-controlled nonvolatile changes to the electronic structure in bilayers of PVDF-HFP/[Fe{H2B(pz)2}2(bipy)] strongly depends on the thickness of the PVDF-HFP layer. The PVDF-HFP/[Fe{H2B(pz)2}2(bipy)] interface may affect PVDF-HFP ferroelectric polarization retention in the thin film limit.

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  10. A chiral 3D coordination compound, [Gd 2 (L) 2 (ox) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ], arranged around a dinuclear Gd unit has been characterized by X-ray photoemission and X-ray absorption measurements in the context of density functional theory studies. Core level photoemission of the Gd 5p multiplet splittings indicates that spin orbit coupling dominates over j–J coupling evident in the 5p core level spectra of Gd metal. Indications of spin–orbit coupling are consistent with the absence of inversion symmetry due to the ligand field. Density functional theory predicts antiferromagnet alignment of the Gd 2 dimers and a band gap of the compound consistent with optical absorption. 
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