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    New instruments and telescopes covering the optical and ultraviolet spectral regions have revealed a range of small-scale dynamic features, many which may be related. For example, the range of spicule-like features hints towards a spectrum of features and not just two types; however, direct observational evidence in terms of tracking spicules across multiple wavelengths is needed in order to provide further insight into the dynamics of the Sun’s outer atmosphere. This paper uses H α data obtained with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter instrument on the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, and in the transition region using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph with the SJI 1400 Å channel plus spectral data via the Si iv 1394 Å line to track spicules termed rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs). The RBEs as seen in the H α blue wing images presented here can be subdivided into two categories: a single or multithreaded feature. Based on the H α spectra, the features can be divided into events showing broadening and line core absorption, events showing broadening and line core emission, events with a pure blueshifted H α profile without any absorption in the red wing, and broadened line profile with the absorption in the blue strongermore »compared to the red wing. From the RBE-like events that have a Si iv 1394 Å line profile, 78  per cent of them show a Si iv line flux increase. Most of these features show a second broadened Si iv component that is slightly blueshifted.

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    We show signatures of spicules termed rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs) in the Si iv 1394 Å emission line using a semi-automated detection approach. We use the H α filtergrams obtained by the CRISP imaging spectropolarimeter on the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope and co-aligned Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph data using the SJI 1400 Å channel to study the spatiotemporal signature of the RBEs in the transition region. The detection of RBEs is carried out using an oriented coronal loop tracing algorithm on H α Dopplergrams at ±35 km s−1. We find that the number of detected features is significantly impacted by the time-varying contrast values of the detection images, which are caused by the changes in the atmospheric seeing conditions. We detect 407 events with lifetime greater than 32 s. This number is further reduced to 168 RBEs based on the H α profile and the proximity of RBEs to the large-scale flow. Of these 168 RBEs, 89 of them display a clear spatiotemporal signature in the SJI 1400 Å channel, indicating that a total of $\sim 53{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ are observed to have co-spatial signatures between the chromosphere and the transition region.

  3. Abstract

    The current best upper limit for electron electric dipole moment (EDM), |de| < 1.1 × 10−29e cm (90% confidence), was set by the ACME Collaboration in 2018. The ACME experiment uses a spin-precession measurement in a cold beam of thorium monoxide (ThO) molecules to detectde. An improvement in statistical uncertainty would be possible with more efficient use of molecules from the cryogenic buffer gas beam source. Here, we demonstrate electrostatic focusing of the ThO beam with a hexapole lens. This results in a factor of 16 enhancement in the molecular flux detectable downstream, in a beamline similar to that built for the next generation of ACME. We also demonstrate an upgraded rotational cooling scheme that increases the ground state population by 3.5 times compared to no cooling, consistent with expectations and a factor of 1.4 larger than previously in ACME. When combined with other demonstrated improvements, we project over an order of magnitude improvement in statistical sensitivity for the next generation ACME electron EDM search.

  4. This project aims to enhance students’ learning in foundational engineering courses through oral exams based on the research conducted at the University of California San Diego. The adaptive dialogic nature of oral exams provides instructors an opportunity to better understand students’ thought processes, thus holding promise for improving both assessments of conceptual mastery and students’ learning attitudes and strategies. However, the issues of oral exam reliability, validity, and scalability have not been fully addressed. As with any assessment format, careful design is needed to maximize the benefits of oral exams to student learning and minimize the potential concerns. Compared to traditional written exams, oral exams have a unique design space, which involves a large range of parameters, including the type of oral assessment questions, grading criteria, how oral exams are administered, how questions are communicated and presented to the students, how feedback were provided, and other logistical perspectives such as weight of oral exam in overall course grade, frequency of oral assessment, etc. In order to address the scalability for high enrollment classes, key elements of the project are the involvement of the entire instructional team (instructors and teaching assistants). Thus the project will create a new training program tomore »prepare faculty and teaching assistants to administer oral exams that include considerations of issues such as bias and students with disabilities. The purpose of this study is to create a framework to integrate oral exams in core undergraduate engineering courses, complementing existing assessment strategies by (1) creating a guideline to optimize the oral exam design parameters for the best students learning outcomes; and (2) Create a new training program to prepare faculty and teaching assistants to administer oral exams. The project will implement an iterative design strategy using an evidence-based approach of evaluation. The effectiveness of the oral exams will be evaluated by tracking student improvements on conceptual questions across consecutive oral exams in a single course, as well as across other courses. Since its start in January 2021, the project is well underway. In this poster, we will present a summary of the results from year 1: (1) exploration of the oral exam design parameters, and its impact in students’ engagement and perception of oral exams towards learning; (2) the effectiveness of the newly developed instructor and teaching assistants training programs (3) The development of the evaluation instruments to gauge the project success; (4) instructors and teaching assistants experience and perceptions.« less

    Solar radio emission at low frequencies (<1 GHz) can provide valuable information on processes driving flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Radio emission has been detected from active M dwarf stars, suggestive of much higher levels of activity than previously thought. Observations of active M dwarfs at low frequencies can provide information on the emission mechanism for high energy flares and possible stellar CMEs. Here, we conducted two observations with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder Telescope totalling 26 h and scheduled to overlap with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite Sector 36 field, utilizing the wide fields of view of both telescopes to search for multiple M dwarfs. We detected variable radio emission in Stokes I centred at 888 MHz from four known active M dwarfs. Two of these sources were also detected with Stokes V circular polarization. When examining the detected radio emission characteristics, we were not able to distinguish between the models for either electron cyclotron maser or gyrosynchrotron emission. These detections add to the growing number of M dwarfs observed with variable low-frequency emission.

  6. This work-in-progress paper presents an innovative practice of using oral exams to maintain academic integrity and promote student engagement in large-enrollment engineering courses during remote instruction. With the abrupt and widespread transition to distance learning and assessment brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a registered upsurge in academic integrity violations globally. To address the challenge of compromised integrity, in the winter quarter of 2021 we have implemented oral exams across six mostly high-enrollment mechanical and electrical engineering undergraduate courses. We present our oral exam design parameters in each of the courses and discuss how oral exams relate to academic integrity, student engagement, stress, and implicit bias. We also address the challenge of scalability, as most of our oral exams were implemented in large classes, where academic integrity and student-instructor disconnection have generally gotten disproportionately worse during remote learning. Our survey results indicate that oral exams have positively contributed to academic integrity in our courses. Based on our preliminary study and experiences, we expect oral exams can be effectively leveraged to hinder cheating and foster academic honesty in students, even when in-person instruction and assessment resumes.
  7. Affordable access to safe drinking water is essential to community health, yet there is limited understanding of water insecurity among Native Americans. Therefore, the focus of this paper is to describe Apsáalooke (Crow Indian) tribal members’ experiences with water insecurity. For Apsáalooke people, local rivers and springs are still vitally important for traditional cultural activities. We interviewed 30 Native American adults living on the Crow Reservation in Southeastern Montana. Participants answered six open-ended interview questions about their water access, costs of obtaining water and changes in their domestic and traditional water uses. Participants emphasized how the use of water has changed over time and described the complex challenges associated with addressing water insecurity in their community, including the importance of considering the spiritual and cultural impacts of water insecurity on health. Water insecurity is a growing global problem and more attention and efforts are needed to find appropriate and affordable solutions.
  8. Abstract

    The best upper limit for the electron electric dipole moment was recently set by the ACME collaboration. This experiment measures an electron spin-precession in a cold beam of ThO molecules in their metastableH(3Δ1)state. Improvement in the statistical and systematic uncertainties is possible with more efficient use of molecules from the source and better magnetometry in the experiment, respectively. Here, we report measurements of several relevant properties of the long-livedQ(3Δ2)state of ThO, and show that this state is a very useful resource for both these purposes. TheQstate lifetime is long enough that its decay during the time of flight in the ACME beam experiment is negligible. The large electric dipole moment measured for theQstate, giving rise to a large linear Stark shift, is ideal for an electrostatic lens that increases the fraction of molecules detected downstream. The measured magnetic moment of theQstate is also large enough to be used as a sensitive co-magnetometer in ACME. Finally, we show that theQstate has a large transition dipole moment to theC(1Π1)state, which allows for efficient population transfer between the ground stateXmore »width='0.50em'/>(1Σ+)and theQstate viaXCQStimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP). We demonstrate 90 % STIRAP transfer efficiency. In the course of these measurements, we also determine the magnetic moment ofCstate, theXCtransition dipole moment, and branching ratios of decays from theCstate.

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