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  1. Abstract

    Unrest began in July 2021 at Askja volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland. Its most recent eruption, in 1961, was predominantly effusive and produced ∼0.1 km3lava field. The last plinian eruption at Askja occurred in 1875. Geodetic measurements between 1983 and 2021 detail subsidence of Askja, decaying in an exponential manner. At the end of July 2021, inflation was detected at Askja volcano, from GNSS observations and Sentinel‐1 interferograms. The inflationary episode can be divided into two periods from the onset of inflation until September 2023. An initial period until 20 September 2021 when geodetic models suggest transfer of magma (or magmatic fluids) from within the shallowest part of the magmatic system (comprising an inflating and deflating source), potentially involving silicic magma. A following period when one source of pressure increase at shallow depth can explain the observations.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 28, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Post‐rifting ground deformation may be driven by viscoelastic relaxation of stresses generated by dike intrusions. The single‐dike intrusion of the 2014–2015 Bárðarbunga eruption in Iceland presents an opportunity for a detailed study of this process. We use continuous Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) velocity fields to analyze the 2015–2020 post‐rifting deformation, showing uplift on both sides of the dike and horizontal displacement away from the dike after correcting for background deformation. Two GNSS stations experience baseline lengthening at a rate of 19 mm/yr in the direction perpendicular to the strike of the dike. A two‐layer viscoelastic model with a 0.4 × 1019 Pa s viscoelastic half‐space overlain by an 18 km thick elastic layer best explains the observed horizontal and vertical InSAR and GNSS displacements. The model misfit space shows a second regime of good fit, likely driven by deformation near the dike that may result from cooling compaction of the emplaced dike.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Improvement of our understanding of the role of ground deformation due to viscoelastic relaxation following eruptions is important, as the generated signals can resemble renewed magma inflow. We study post‐eruptive unrest at the subglacial Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland, after a caldera collapse and major magma drainage in 2014–2015. Elevated seismicity began about 6 months after the eruption ended, including nine Mlw> 4.5 earthquakes. Global Navigation Satellite System and Sentinel‐1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar geodesy are applied to evaluate post‐eruptive ground deformation from 2015 to 2018. Horizontal velocities locally exceed 10 cm/year and rapidly decay with distance away from the caldera. We explore two end‐member models and their combination to explain the post‐eruptive deformation field: 1) viscoelastic relaxation caused by the co‐eruptive caldera collapse and magma withdrawal, and 2) renewed magma inflow. We find parameter combinations for each model that explain the observed ground deformation. The purely viscoelastic relaxation model, consisting of a half‐space composed of a 7‐km thick elastic layer on top of a viscoelastic layer with a viscosity of 3.0 × 1018 Pa s reproduces broadly the observations. A simple magma inflow model consisting of a single point source with an inflow rate of 1 × 107 m3/year at 0.7 km depth broadly fits the observations, but may be unrealistic. A more elaborate model of magma inflow into a 10‐km deep sill combined with slip on the caldera ring fault explains the observations well. Our results suggest that the co‐eruptive deformation field is likely influenced by viscoelastic relaxation, renewed magma inflow, or a combination of both processes.

     
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