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  1. null (Ed.)
  2. Abstract

    Woody plant encroachment (WPE) into grasslands has been occurring globally and may be accelerated by climate change in the future. This land cover change is expected to alter the carbon and water cycles, but it remains uncertain how and to what extent the carbon and water cycles may change withWPEinto grasslands under current climate. In this study, we examined the difference of vegetation indices (VIs), evapotranspiration (ET), gross primary production (GPP), and solar‐induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) during 2000–2010 between grasslands and juniper‐encroached grasslands. We also quantitatively assessed the changes ofGPPandETfor grasslands with different proportions of juniper encroachment (JWPE). Our results suggested thatJWPEincreased theGPP,ET, greenness‐relatedVIs, andSIFof grasslands. Mean annualGPPandETwere, respectively, ~55% and ~45% higher when grasslands were completely converted into juniper forests under contemporary climate during 2000–2010. The enhancement of annualGPPandETfor grasslands withJWPEvaried over years ranging from about +20%GPP(~+30% forET) in the wettest year (2007) to about twice as muchGPP(~+55% forET) in the severe drought year (2006) relative to grasslands without encroachment. Additionally, the differences inGPPandETshowed significant seasonal dynamics. During the peak growing season (May–August),GPPandETfor grasslands withJWPEwere ~30% and ~40% higher on average. This analysis provided insights into how and to what degree carbon and water cycles were impacted byJWPE, which is vital to understanding howJWPEand ecological succession will affect the regional and global carbon and water budgets in the future.

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