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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are master regulators of the reproductive axis in vertebrates. During early mammalian embryogenesis, GnRH1 neurons emerge in the nasal/olfactory placode. These neurons undertake a long-distance migration, moving from the nose to the preoptic area and hypothalamus. While significant advances have been made in understanding the functional importance of the GnRH1 neurons in reproduction, where GnRH1 neurons come from and how are they specified during early development is still under debate. In addition to the GnRH1 gene, most vertebrate species including humans have one or two additional GnRH genes. Compared to the GnRH1 neurons, much less is known about the development and regulation of GnRH2 neuron and GnRH3 neurons. The objective of this article is to review what is currently known about GnRH neuron development. We will survey various cell autonomous and non-autonomous factors implicated in the regulation of GnRH neuron development. Finally, we will discuss emerging tools and new approaches to resolve open questions pertaining to GnRH neuron development.