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  1. Abstract Flowering plants have evolved numerous intraspecific and interspecific prezygotic reproductive barriers to prevent production of unfavourable offspring 1 . Within a species, self-incompatibility (SI) is a widely utilized mechanism that rejects self-pollen 2,3 to avoid inbreeding depression. Interspecific barriers restrain breeding between species and often follow the SI × self-compatible (SC) rule, that is, interspecific pollen is unilaterally incompatible (UI) on SI pistils but unilaterally compatible (UC) on SC pistils 1,4–6 . The molecular mechanisms underlying SI, UI, SC and UC and their interconnections in the Brassicaceae remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the SI pollen determinant S -locus cysteine-rich protein/ S -locus protein 11 (SCR/SP11) 2,3 or a signal from UI pollen binds to the SI female determinant S -locus receptor kinase (SRK) 2,3 , recruits FERONIA (FER) 7–9 and activates FER-mediated reactive oxygen species production in SI stigmas 10,11 to reject incompatible pollen. For compatible responses, diverged pollen coat protein B-class 12–14 from SC and UC pollen differentially trigger nitric oxide, nitrosate FER to suppress reactive oxygen species in SC stigmas to facilitate pollen growth in an intraspecies-preferential manner, maintaining species integrity. Our results show that SRK and FER integrate mechanisms underlying intraspecific and interspecific barriers and offer paths to achieve distant breeding in Brassicaceae crops. 
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  3. The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a multifunctional regulator for plant growth and reproduction. Here we report that the female gametophyte-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) LORELEI and the seedling-expressed LRE-like GPI-AP1 (LLG1) bind to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of FER and show that this interaction is pivotal for FER function. LLG1 interacts with FER in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface, and loss of LLG1 function induces cytoplasmic retention of FER, consistent with transport of FER from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in a complex with LLG1. We further demonstrate that LLG1 is a component of the FER-regulated RHO GTPase signaling complex and that fer and llg1 mutants display indistinguishable growth, developmental and signaling phenotypes, analogous to how lre and fer share similar reproductive defects. Together our results support LLG1/LRE acting as a chaperone and co-receptor for FER and elucidate a mechanism by which GPI-APs enable the signaling capacity of a cell surface receptor.

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