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  1. null (Ed.)
    In high energy physics (HEP), jets are collections of correlated particles produced ubiquitously in particle collisions such as those at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Machine-learning-based generative models, such as generative adversarial networks (GANs), have the potential to significantly accelerate LHC jet simulations. However, despite jets having a natural representation as a set of particles in momentum-space, a.k.a. a particle cloud, to our knowledge there exist no generative models applied to such a dataset. We introduce a new particle cloud dataset (JetNet), and, due to similarities between particle and point clouds, apply to it existing point cloud GANs. Results are evaluated using (1) the 1-Wasserstein distance between high- and low-level feature distributions, (2) a newly developed Fréchet ParticleNet Distance, and (3) the coverage and (4) minimum matching distance metrics. Existing GANs are found to be inadequate for physics applications, hence we develop a new message passing GAN (MPGAN), which outperforms existing point cloud GANs on virtually every metric and shows promise for use in HEP. We propose JetNet as a novel point-cloud-style dataset for the machine learning community to experiment with, and set MPGAN as a benchmark to improve upon for future generative models. 
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  2. Abstract

    Since the initial data taking of the CERN LHC, the CMS experiment has undergone substantial upgrades and improvements. This paper discusses the CMS detector as it is configured for the third data-taking period of the CERN LHC, Run 3, which started in 2022. The entire silicon pixel tracking detector was replaced. A new powering system for the superconducting solenoid was installed. The electronics of the hadron calorimeter was upgraded. All the muon electronic systems were upgraded, and new muon detector stations were added, including a gas electron multiplier detector. The precision proton spectrometer was upgraded. The dedicated luminosity detectors and the beam loss monitor were refurbished. Substantial improvements to the trigger, data acquisition, software, and computing systems were also implemented, including a new hybrid CPU/GPU farm for the high-level trigger.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  3. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    A search for new physics in top quark production with additional final-state leptons is performed using data collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at$$ \sqrt{s} $$s= 13 TeV at the LHC during 2016–2018. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb1. Using the framework of effective field theory (EFT), potential new physics effects are parametrized in terms of 26 dimension-six EFT operators. The impacts of EFT operators are incorporated through the event-level reweighting of Monte Carlo simulations, which allows for detector-level predictions. The events are divided into several categories based on lepton multiplicity, total lepton charge, jet multiplicity, and b-tagged jet multiplicity. Kinematic variables corresponding to the transverse momentum (pT) of the leading pair of leptons and/or jets as well as thepTof on-shell Z bosons are used to extract the 95% confidence intervals of the 26 Wilson coefficients corresponding to these EFT operators. No significant deviation with respect to the standard model prediction is found.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024