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  1. As technology advances, data driven work is becoming increasingly important across all disciplines. Data science is an emerging field that encompasses a large array of topics including data collection, data preprocessing, data visualization, and data analysis using statistical and machine learning methods. As undergraduates enter the workforce in the future, they will need to “benefit from a fundamental awareness of and competence in data science”[9]. This project has formed a research practice partnership that brings together STEM+C instructors and researchers from three universities and an education research and consulting group. We aim to use high frequency monitoring data collected from real-world systems to develop and implement an interdisciplinary approach to enable undergraduate students to develop an understanding of data science concepts through individual STEM disciplines that include engineering, computer science, environmental science, and biology. In this paper, we perform an initial exploratory analysis on how data science topics are introduced into the different courses, with the ultimate goal of understanding how instructional modules and accompanying assessments can be developed for multidisciplinary use. We analyze information collected from instructor interviews and surveys, student surveys, and assessments from five undergraduate courses (243 students) at the three universities to understand aspects of datamore »science curricula that are common across disciplines. Using a qualitative approach, we find commonalities in data science instruction and assessment components across the disciplines. This includes topical content, data sources, pedagogical approaches, and assessment design. Preliminary analyses of instructor interviews also suggest factors that affect the content taught and the assessment material across the five courses. These factors include class size, students’ year of study, students’ reasons for taking class, and students’ background expertise and knowledge. These findings indicate the challenges in developing data modules for multidisciplinary use. We hope that the analysis and reflections on our initial offerings has improved our understanding of these challenges, and how we may address them when designing future data science teaching modules. These are the first steps in a design-based approach to developing data science modules that may be offered across multiple courses.« less
  2. Abstract India is located at a critical geographic crossroads for understanding the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa and into Asia and Oceania. Here we report evidence for long-term human occupation, spanning the last ~80 thousand years, at the site of Dhaba in the Middle Son River Valley of Central India. An unchanging stone tool industry is found at Dhaba spanning the Toba eruption of ~74 ka (i.e., the Youngest Toba Tuff, YTT) bracketed between ages of 79.6 ± 3.2 and 65.2 ± 3.1 ka, with the introduction of microlithic technology ~48 ka. The lithic industry from Dhaba strongly resembles stone tool assemblages from the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Arabia, and the earliest artefacts from Australia, suggesting that it is likely the product of Homo sapiens as they dispersed eastward out of Africa.
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 7, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  5. Abstract The multiplicity dependence of jet production in pp collisions at the centre-of-mass energy of $$\sqrt{s} = 13\ {\mathrm {TeV}}$$ s = 13 TeV is studied for the first time. Jets are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti- $$k_\mathrm {T}$$ k T algorithm with resolution parameters R varying from 0.2 to 0.7. The jets are measured in the pseudorapidity range $$|\eta _{\mathrm{jet}}|< 0.9-R$$ | η jet | < 0.9 - R and in the transverse momentum range $$5more »shows only a weak dependence on jet transverse momentum and resolution parameter at the highest multiplicity. While such behaviour is qualitatively described by the present version of PYTHIA, quantitative description may require implementing new mechanisms for multi-particle production in hadronic collisions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  6. A bstract A measurement of inclusive, prompt, and non-prompt J/ ψ production in p-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy $$ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV is presented. The inclusive J/ ψ mesons are reconstructed in the dielectron decay channel at midrapidity down to a transverse momentum p T = 0. The inclusive J/ ψ nuclear modification factor R pPb is calculated by comparing the new results in p-Pb collisions to a recently measured proton-proton reference at the same centre-of-mass energy. Non-prompt J/ ψ mesons, which originate from the decay of beauty hadrons, are separated from promptly produced J/ ψ on a statistical basis for p T larger than 1.0 GeV/ c . These results are based on the data sample collected by the ALICE detector during the 2016 LHC p-Pb run, corresponding to an integrated luminosity $$ \mathcal{L} $$ L int = 292 ± 11 μ b − 1 , which is six times larger than the previous publications. The total uncertainty on the p T -integrated inclusive J/ ψ and non-prompt J/ ψ cross section are reduced by a factor 1.7 and 2.2, respectively. The measured cross sections and R pPb are compared withmore »theoretical models that include various combinations of cold nuclear matter effects. From the non-prompt J/ ψ production cross section, the $$ \mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $$ b b ¯ production cross section at midrapidity, $$ {\mathrm{d}\sigma}_{\mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}}} $$ d σ b b ¯ / d y , and the total cross section extrapolated over full phase space, $$ {\sigma}_{\mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}}} $$ σ b b ¯ , are derived.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  7. Abstract In particle collider experiments, elementary particle interactions with large momentum transfer produce quarks and gluons (known as partons) whose evolution is governed by the strong force, as described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) 1 . These partons subsequently emit further partons in a process that can be described as a parton shower 2 , which culminates in the formation of detectable hadrons. Studying the pattern of the parton shower is one of the key experimental tools for testing QCD. This pattern is expected to depend on the mass of the initiating parton, through a phenomenon known as the dead-cone effect, which predicts a suppression of the gluon spectrum emitted by a heavy quark of mass m Q and energy E , within a cone of angular size m Q / E around the emitter 3 . Previously, a direct observation of the dead-cone effect in QCD had not been possible, owing to the challenge of reconstructing the cascading quarks and gluons from the experimentally accessible hadrons. We report the direct observation of the QCD dead cone by using new iterative declustering techniques 4,5 to reconstruct the parton shower of charm quarks. This result confirms a fundamental featuremore »of QCD. Furthermore, the measurement of a dead-cone angle constitutes a direct experimental observation of the non-zero mass of the charm quark, which is a fundamental constant in the standard model of particle physics.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 19, 2023
  8. Abstract The study of the production of nuclei and antinuclei in pp collisions has proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the formation mechanism of loosely bound states in high-energy hadronic collisions. In this paper, the production of protons, deuterons and $$^{3}\mathrm {He}$$ 3 He and their charge conjugates at midrapidity is studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity in inelastic pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s}=5.02$$ s = 5.02 TeV using the ALICE detector. Within the uncertainties, the yields of nuclei in pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s}=5.02$$ s = 5.02 TeV are compatible with those in pp collisions at different energies and to those in p–Pb collisions when compared at similar multiplicities. The measurements are compared with the expectations of coalescence and Statistical Hadronisation Models. The results suggest a common formation mechanism behind the production of light nuclei in hadronic interactions and confirm that they do not depend on the collision energy but on the number of produced particles.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  9. Abstract Angular correlations of heavy-flavour and charged particles in high-energy proton–proton collisions are sensitive to the production mechanisms of heavy quarks and to their fragmentation as well as hadronisation processes. The measurement of the azimuthal-correlation function of prompt D mesons with charged particles in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $$\sqrt{s} = 13$$ s = 13  TeV with the ALICE detector is reported, considering $$\mathrm D^{0} $$ D 0 , $$\mathrm D^{+} $$ D + , and $$\mathrm D^{*+} $$ D ∗ + mesons in the transverse-momentum interval $$3< p_{\mathrm{T}} < 36$$ 3 < p T < 36  GeV/ $$c$$ c at midrapidity ( $$|y| < 0.5$$ | y | < 0.5 ), and charged particles with $$p_{\mathrm{T}} > 0.3$$ p T > 0.3  GeV/ $$c$$ c and pseudorapidity $$|\eta | < 0.8$$ | η | < 0.8 . This measurement has an improved precision and provides an extended transverse-momentum coverage compared to previous ALICE measurements at lower energies. The study is also performed as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity, showing no modifications of the correlation function with multiplicity within uncertainties. The properties and the transverse-momentum evolution of the near- and away-side correlation peaks are studied and comparedmore »with predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators. Among those considered, PYTHIA8 and POWHEG+PYTHIA8 provide the best description of the measured observables. The obtained results can provide guidance on tuning the generators.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023