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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  2. Inputs of new nitrogen by cyanobacterial diazotrophs are critical to ocean ecosystem structure and function. Relative to other ocean regions, there is a lack of data on the distribution of these microbes in the western South Atlantic. Here, the abundance of six diazotroph phylotypes: Trichodesmium , Crocosphaera , UCYN-A, Richelia associated with Rhizosolenia (Het-1) or Hemiaulus (Het-2), and Calothrix associated with Chaetoceros (Het-3) was measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the nifH gene along a transect extending from the shelf-break to the open ocean along the Vitória-Trindade seamount chain (1200 km). Using nifH gene copies as a proxy for phylotype abundance, Crocosphaera signals were the most abundant, with a broad distribution throughout the study region. Trichodesmium signals were the second most abundant, with the greatest numbers confined to the warmer waters closer to the coast, and a significant positive correlation with temperature. The average signals for the host-associated diazotrophs (UCYN-A, Het-1, and Het-2) were consistently lower than for the other phylotypes. These findings expand measurements of cyanobacterial diazotroph distribution in the western South Atlantic, and provide a new resource to enhance modeling studies focused on patterns of nitrogen fixation in the global ocean.
  3. Cock, M. (Ed.)
  4. There is growing interest in the use of metatranscriptomics to study virus community dynamics. We used RNA samples collected from harmful brown tides caused by the eukaryotic alga Aureococcus anophagefferens within New York (United States) estuaries and in the process observed how preprocessing of libraries by either selection for polyadenylation or reduction in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) influenced virus community analyses. As expected, more reads mapped to the A. anophagefferens genome in polyadenylation-selected libraries compared to the rRNA-reduced libraries, with reads mapped in each sample correlating to one another regardless of preprocessing of libraries. Yet, this trend was not seen for reads mapping to the Aureococcus anophagefferens Virus (AaV), where significantly more reads (approximately two orders of magnitude) were mapped to the AaV genome in the rRNA-reduced libraries. In the rRNA-reduced libraries, there was a strong and significant correlation between reads mappings to AaV and A. anophagefferens . Overall, polyadenylation-selected libraries produced fewer viral contigs, fewer reads mapped to viral contigs, and different proportions across viral realms and families, compared to their rRNA-reduced pairs. This study provides evidence that libraries generated by rRNA reduction and not selected for polyadenylation are more appropriate for quantitative characterization of viral communities in aquatic ecosystemsmore »by metatranscriptomics.« less