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The hippocampus is necessary for declarative (relational) memory, and the ability to form hippocampal‐dependent memories develops through late adolescence. This developmental trajectory of hippocampal‐dependent memory could reflect maturation of intrinsic functional brain networks, but resting‐state functional connectivity (rs‐FC) of the human hippocampus is not well‐characterized for periadolescent children. Measuring hippocampal rs‐FC in periadolescence would thus fill a gap, and testing covariance of hippocampal rs‐FC with age and memory could inform theories of cognitive development. Here, we studied hippocampal rs‐FC in a cross‐sectional sample of healthy children (
N= 96; 59 F; age 9–15 years) using a seed‐based approach, and linked these data with NIH Toolbox measures, the Picture‐Sequence Memory Test (PSMT) and the List Sorting Working Memory Test (LSWMT). The PSMT was expected to rely more on hippocampal‐dependent memory than the LSWMT. We observed hippocampal rs‐FC with an extensive brain network including temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. This pattern was consistent with prior work measuring hippocampal rs‐FC in younger and older samples. We also observed novel, regionally specific variation in hippocampal rs‐FC with age and hippocampal‐dependent memory but not working memory. Evidence consistent with these findings was observed in a second, validation dataset of similar‐age healthy children drawn from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopment Cohort. Further, a cross‐dataset analysis suggested generalizable properties of hippocampal rs‐FC and covariance with age and memory. Our findings connect prior work by describing hippocampal rs‐FC and covariance with age and memory in typically developing periadolescent children, and our observations suggest a developmental trajectory for brain networks that support hippocampal‐dependent memory.
Visual attention involves discrete multispectral oscillatory responses in visual and ‘higher‐order’ prefrontal cortices.
Prefrontal cortex laterality effects during visual selective attention are poorly characterized.
High‐definition transcranial direct current stimulation dynamically modulated right‐lateralized fronto‐visual theta oscillations compared to those observed in left fronto‐visual pathways.
Increased connectivity in right fronto‐visual networks after stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex resulted in faster task performance in the context of distractors.
Our findings show clear laterality effects in theta oscillatory activity along prefrontal–visual cortical pathways during visual selective attention.
Studies of visual attention have implicated oscillatory activity in the recognition, protection and temporal organization of attended representations in visual cortices. These studies have also shown that higher‐order regions such as the prefrontal cortex are critical to attentional processing, but far less is understood regarding prefrontal laterality differences in attention processing. To examine this, we selectively applied high‐definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD‐tDCS) to the left or right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We predicted that HD‐tDCS of the left
versusright prefrontal cortex would differentially modulate performance on a visual selective attention task, and alter the underlying oscillatory network dynamics. Our randomized crossover design included 27 healthy adults that underwent three separate sessions of HD‐tDCS (sham, left DLPFC and right DLPFC) for 20 min. Following stimulation, participants completed an attention protocol during magnetoencephalography. The resulting oscillatory dynamics were imaged using beamforming, and peak task‐related neural activity was subjected to dynamic functional connectivity analyses to evaluate the impact of stimulation site (i.e. left and right DLPFC) on neural interactions. Our results indicated that HD‐tDCS over the left DLPFC differentially modulated right fronto‐visual functional connectivity within the theta band compared to HD‐tDCS of the right DLPFC and further, specifically modulated the oscillatory response for detecting targets among an array of distractors. Importantly, these findings provide network‐specific insight into the complex oscillatory mechanisms serving visual selective attention.