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  1. Rodriguez, Julio A. (Ed.)

    Design code-based “life-safety” requirements for structural earthquake and tsunami design offer reasonable guidelines to construct buildings that will remain standing during a tsunami or seismic event. Much less consideration has been given to assessing structural resilience during sequential earthquake and tsunami multi-hazard events. Such events present a series of extreme loading scenarios, where damage sustained during the earthquake influences structural performance during the subsequent inundation. Similar difficulties exist with respect to damage sustained during tropical events, as wind and fluid loading may vary with structural response or accumulated damage. To help ensure critical structures meet a “life-safety” level of performance during such multi-hazard events, analysis software capable of simulating simultaneous structural and fluid dynamics must be developed. To address this gap in understanding of non-linear fluid-structure-interaction (FSI), an open-source tool (FOAMySees) was developed for simulation of tsunami and wave impact analysis of post-earthquake non-linear structural response of buildings. The tool is comprised of the Open-source Field Operation And Manipulation software package and OpenSeesPy, a Python 3 interpreter of OpenSees. The programs are coupledviapreCICE, a coupling library for partitioned multi-physics simulation. FOAMySees has been written to work in a Linux OS environment with HPC clusters in mind. The FOAMySees program offers a partitioned conventional-serial-staggered coupling scheme, with optional implicit iteration techniques to ensure a strongly-coupled two-way FSI solution. While FOAMySees was developed specifically for tsunami-resilience analysis, it may be utilized for other FSI applications with ease. With this coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) program, tsunami and earthquake simulations may be run sequentially or simultaneously, allowing for the evaluation of non-linear structural response to multi-hazard excitation.

     
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  2. During a tsunami or storm surge event, coastal infrastructure and ports are subject to a series of disparate physical hazards that can cause significant damage and loss of life. Among these, debris impact loading during inundation events is chaotic, complex, and thus far minimally understood, especially when considering the accumulation of individual debris into a large debris field. This work provides the results of a comprehensive experimental study of the impact and subsequent damming of chaotic debris fields, including more than 400 individual trials; this scope of this paper describes the experimental design and initial analysis of wave-driven debris-induced loading for select configurations. These data include both the impact phenomena and subsequent damming by debris accumulation and find strong correlation between increasing debris field density and high impact forces. High frequency impact forces and low frequency damming signals are considered via fast Fourier transform methods. Overall trends in wave-induced debris forcing from large debris fields are presented. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
  4. Summary

    Studies of recorded ground motions and simulations have shown that deep sedimentary basins can greatly increase the intensity of earthquake ground motions within a period range of approximately 1–4 s, but the economic impacts of basin effects are uncertain. This paper estimates key economic indicators of seismic performance, expressed in terms of earthquake‐induced repair costs, using empirical and simulated seismic hazard characterizations that account for the effects of basins. The methodology used is general, but the estimates are made for a series of eight‐ to 24‐story residential reinforced concrete shear wall archetype buildings in Seattle, WA, whose design neglects basin effects. All buildings are designed to comply with code‐minimum requirements (i.e., reference archetypes), as well as a series of design enhancements, which include (a) increasing design forces, (b) decreasing drift limits, and (c) a combination of these strategies. As an additional reference point, a performance‐based design is also assessed. The performance of the archetype buildings is evaluated for the seismic hazard level in Seattle according to the 2018 National Seismic Hazard Model (2018 NSHM), which explicitly considers basin effects. Inclusion of basin effects results in an average threefold increase in annualized losses for all archetypes. Incorporating physics‐based ground motion simulations to represent the large‐magnitude Cascadia subduction interface earthquake contribution to the hazard results in a further increase of 22% relative to the 2018 NSHM. The most effective of the design strategies considered combines a 25% increase in strength with a reduction in drift limits to 1.5%.

     
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