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  1. Modern Information Technology (IT) servers are typically assumed to operate in quiescent conditions with almost zero static pressure differentials between inlet and exhaust. However, when operating in a data center containment system the IT equipment thermal status is a strong function of the non- homogenous environment of the air space, IT utilization workloads and the overall facility cooling system design. To implement a dynamic and interfaced cooling solution, the interdependencies of variabilities between the chassis, rack and room level must be determined. In this paper, the effect of positive as well as negative static pressure differential between inlet and outlet of servers on thermal performance, fan control schemes, the direction of air flow through the servers as well as fan energy consumption within a server is observed at the chassis level. In this study, a web server with internal air-flow paths segregated into two separate streams, each having dedicated fan/group of fans within the chassis, is operated over a range of static pressure differential across the server. Experiments were conducted to observe the steady-state temperatures of CPUs and fan power consumption. Furthermore, the server fan speed control scheme’s transient response to a typical peak in IT computational workload while operating at negative pressure differentials across the server is reported. The effects of the internal air flow paths within the chassis is studied through experimental testing and simulations for flow visualization. The results indicate that at higher positive differential pressures across the server, increasing server fans speeds will have minimal impact on the cooling of the system. On the contrary, at lower, negative differential pressure server fan power becomes strongly dependent on operating pressure differential. More importantly, it is shown that an imbalance of flow impedances in internal airflow paths and fan control logic can onset recirculation of exhaust air within the server. For accurate prediction of airflow in cases where negative pressure differential exists, this study proposes an extended fan performance curve instead of a regular fan performance curve to be applied as a fan boundary condition for Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. 
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