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  1. Abstract We present an overview of the Large Program, “Early Planet Formation in Embedded Disks (eDisk),” conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The ubiquitous detections of substructures, particularly rings and gaps, in protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars raise the possibility that at least some planet formation may have already started during the embedded stages of star formation. In order to address exactly how and when planet formation is initiated, the program focuses on searching for substructures in disks around 12 Class 0 and 7 Class I protostars in nearby (<200 pc) star-forming regions through 1.3 mm continuum observations at a resolution of ∼7 au (0.″04). The initial results show that the continuum emission, mostly arising from dust disks around the sample protostars, has relatively few distinctive substructures, such as rings and spirals, in marked contrast to Class II disks. The dramatic difference may suggest that substructures quickly develop in disks when the systems evolve from protostars to Class II sources, or alternatively that high optical depth of the continuum emission could obscure internal structures. Kinematic information obtained through CO isotopologue lines and other lines reveals the presence of Keplerian disks around protostars, providing us with crucial physical parameters, in particular, the dynamical mass of the central protostars. We describe the background of the eDisk program, the sample selection and their ALMA observations, and the data reduction, and we also highlight representative first-look results. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 28, 2024
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  3. Abstract

    While dust disks around optically visible, Class II protostars are found to be vertically thin, when and how dust settles to the midplane are unclear. As part of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array large program, Early Planet Formation in Embedded Disks, we analyze the edge-on, embedded, Class I protostar IRAS 04302+2247, also nicknamed the “Butterfly Star.” With a resolution of 0.″05 (8 au), the 1.3 mm continuum shows an asymmetry along the minor axis that is evidence of an optically thick and geometrically thick disk viewed nearly edge-on. There is no evidence of rings and gaps, which could be due to the lack of radial substructure or the highly inclined and optically thick view. With 0.″1 (16 au) resolution, we resolve the 2D snow surfaces, i.e., the boundary region between freeze-out and sublimation, for12COJ= 2–1,13COJ= 2–1, C18OJ= 2–1,H2COJ= 30,3–20,2, and SOJ= 65–54, and constrain the CO midplane snow line to ∼130 au. We find Keplerian rotation around a protostar of 1.6 ± 0.4Musing C18O. Through forward ray-tracing using RADMC-3D, we find that the dust scale height is ∼6 au at a radius of 100 au from the central star and is comparable to the gas pressure scale height. The results suggest that the dust of this Class I source has yet to vertically settle significantly.

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