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  1. Abstract Ultra-high-energy photons with energies exceeding 10 17 eV offer a wealth of connections to different aspects of cosmic-ray astrophysics as well as to gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy. The recent observations of photons with energies in the 10 15 eV range further motivate searches for even higher-energy photons. In this paper, we present a search for photons with energies exceeding 2 × 10 17 eV using about 5.5 yr of hybrid data from the low-energy extensions of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The upper limits on the integral photon flux derived here are the most stringent ones to date in themore »energy region between 10 17 and 10 18 eV.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We present a measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum above 100 PeV using the part of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory that has a spacing of 750 m. An inflection of the spectrum is observed, confirming the presence of the so-called second-knee feature. The spectrum is then combined with that of the 1500 m array to produce a single measurement of the flux, linking this spectral feature with the three additional breaks at the highest energies. The combined spectrum, with an energy scale set calorimetrically via fluorescence telescopes and using a single detector type, results in the most statistically andmore »systematically precise measurement of spectral breaks yet obtained. These measurements are critical for furthering our understanding of the highest energy cosmic rays.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  4. Abstract The hybrid design of the Pierre Auger Observatory allows for the measurement of the properties of extensive air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays with unprecedented precision. By using an array of prototype underground muon detectors, we have performed the first direct measurement, by the Auger Collaboration, of the muon content of air showers between $$2\times 10^{17}$$ 2 × 10 17 and $$2\times 10^{18}$$ 2 × 10 18 eV. We have studied the energy evolution of the attenuation-corrected muon density, and compared it to predictions from air shower simulations. The observed densities are found to be larger thanmore »those predicted by models. We quantify this discrepancy by combining the measurements from the muon detector with those from the Auger fluorescence detector at $$10^{{17.5}}\, {\mathrm{eV}} $$ 10 17.5 eV and $$10^{{18}}\, {\mathrm{eV}} $$ 10 18 eV . We find that, for the models to explain the data, an increase in the muon density of $$38\%$$ 38 % $$\pm 4\% (12\%)$$ ± 4 % ( 12 % ) $$\pm {}^{21\%}_{18\%}$$ ± 18 % 21 % for EPOS-LHC , and of $$50\% (53\%)$$ 50 % ( 53 % ) $$\pm 4\% (13\%)$$ ± 4 % ( 13 % ) $$\pm {}^{23\%}_{20\%}$$ ± 20 % 23 % for QGSJetII-04 , is respectively needed.« less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Abstract The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), a 40-kton underground liquid argon time projection chamber experiment, will be sensitive to the electron-neutrino flavor component of the burst of neutrinos expected from the next Galactic core-collapse supernova. Such an observation will bring unique insight into the astrophysics of core collapse as well as into the properties of neutrinos. The general capabilities of DUNE for neutrino detection in the relevant few- to few-tens-of-MeV neutrino energy range will be described. As an example, DUNE’s ability to constrain the $$\nu _e$$ ν e spectral parameters of the neutrino burst will be considered.