skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Estes, E.R."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. The South Atlantic Transect (SAT) is a multidisciplinary scientific ocean drilling project that will recover complete sedimentary sections and the upper ~250 m of the underlying oceanic crust along a slow/intermediate spreading rate Mid-Atlantic Ridge crustal flow line at ~31°S. These cores were originally scheduled to be collected during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 390 and 393 in October–December 2020 and April–June 2021, respectively. In 2020 and 2021, the global COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the postponement of several IODP expeditions, including Expeditions 390 and 393, chiefly because science parties were unable to travel to the R/V JOIDES Resolution. Inmore »response, the ship was used to conduct preparatory work for the postponed expeditions that did not require a science party aboard but could be carried out by the ship’s crew and a team of technicians from the JOIDES Resolution Science Operator. Two of these expeditions (390C and 395E) were in service of the SAT drilling project, to reduce the operational risks and expedite basement drilling during the rescheduled Expeditions 390 and 393. Expeditions 390C and 395E visited five of the six primary SAT sites and successfully cored a single advanced piston corer/extended core barrel hole penetrating the entire sediment section and <10 m into the underlying basalt before installing a reentry system in a second hole at each site visited. Given these accomplishments, the operations plans for the rescheduled Expeditions 390 and 393 have been revised.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 390C and 395E were implemented in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic and occupied sites proposed for the postponed Expeditions 390 and 393, South Atlantic Transect 1 and 2. Expedition 395E completed most of the preparatory work that Expedition 390C did not have time to complete. The overall objective of Expeditions 390C and 395E was to core one hole at each of the South Atlantic Transect sites with the advanced piston corer/extended core barrel (APC/XCB) system to basement for gas safety monitoring and to install a reentry system with casing through the sediment tomore »a few meters into basement in a second hole. Expedition 395E started in Cape Town, South Africa, and ended in Reykjavík, Iceland, after 20 days of on-site operations. We cored to basement at two new sites, U1560 and U1561, and completed reentry systems at three sites, U1556, U1557, and U1560. These operations will expedite basement drilling during the rescheduled Expeditions 390 and 393. Hole U1560A (Proposed Site SATL-25A) lies in ~15.2 Ma crust and is composed of carbonate-rich sediments to 120 meters below seafloor (mbsf) and 2.5 m of underlying basalt. A reentry system was deployed in Hole U1560B to 122.0 mbsf. We then moved to the sites at the western end of the transect on ~61 Ma crust. In Hole U1557D, 10¾ inch casing was deployed to 571.6 mbsf to deepen the 16 inch casing that was deployed during Expedition 390C, and in Hole U1556B, a reentry system was deployed to 284.2 mbsf. The remaining operations time was insufficient to install a reentry system at the originally planned site, Proposed Site SATL-33B. Instead, we cored Hole U1561A (Proposed Site SATL-55A) to 47 mbsf. It is composed of red clay and carbonate ooze overlying 3 m of basalt. The six primary sites of the South Atlantic Transect lie perpendicular to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on the South American plate, overlying crust ranging in age from 7 to 61 Ma. Basement coring will increase our understanding of how crustal alteration progresses over time across the flanks of a slow/intermediate-spreading ridge and how microorganisms survive in deep subsurface environments. Sediment will be used in paleoceanographic and microbiological studies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  3. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 390C was implemented in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic and occupied sites proposed for the postponed Expeditions 390 and 393. The objectives for Expedition 390C were to core one hole at each site with the advanced piston corer/extended core barrel (APC/XCB) system to basement for gas safety monitoring and to install a reentry system with casing through the sediment to between ~5 m above basement and <5 m into basement in a second hole. These operations will expedite basement drilling during the rescheduled South Atlantic Transect Expeditions 390 and 393. The six primarymore »sites for those expeditions form a transect perpendicular to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on the South American plate, overlying crust ranging in age from 7 to 61 Ma. Basement coring will increase our understanding of how crustal alteration progresses over time across the flanks of a slow/intermediate spreading ridge and how microorganisms survive in deep subsurface environments. Sediment will be used in paleoceanographic and microbiological studies. Expedition 390C started in Kristiansand, Norway, and ended in Cape Town, South Africa, after 31 days of operations. We cored a single APC/XCB sediment hole to the contact with hard rock material at four of the six sites and successfully installed reentry systems with casing at three. Two failed attempts at drilling in casing and a reentry system into hard rock at Site U1558 indicate that the Dril-Quip reentry cones and running tools are incompatible with use in hard rock because the release mechanism does not work when the casing string weight cannot be fully removed from the running tool. Therefore, at Sites U1558 and U1559, casing was installed to ~10 m above basement. Site U1557 has a thick sediment cover (564 m) and will require multiple casing strings to reach basement; a single 16" casing string was installed to 60 meters below seafloor at this site, and later expeditions will extend casing.« less
  4. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 387 aims to recover sediments at two sites located in shallow water (~350 to 450 m) on the uppermost continental slope west of the Amazon Fan, northwest of the mouth of the Amazon River. These sediments were deposited in the upper part of the long-lived Foz do Amazonas Basin of the equatorial margin of Brazil. These two sites will recover a sedimentary sequence that spans much of the Cenozoic but with variable provenance and highly variable sedimentation rates. By virtue of their location, the Quaternary sediments will recover an abundance of terrigenous materials includingmore »pollen, organic matter, zircon grains, and clay minerals, allowing detailed reconstruction of the biodiversity, climate, and hydrology of the adjacent tropical South American continent. At the same time, an abundance of well-preserved marine microfossils and organic matter will allow accurate determination of the age and oceanographic conditions of the western equatorial Atlantic that partly forced the climate of the adjacent continent. However, our reconstructions of the spatial patterns of biodiversity and climate through time must be interpreted with the knowledge that the geometry of the watersheds that contributed water and sediment to the coastal Atlantic was itself rearranged through time. For example, a transcontinental proto-Amazon river did not likely reach the Atlantic until somewhere between 11 and 2 Ma, a date that we expect to more accurately determine from these new cores. Prior to that event, terrigenous sediments at our sites would have been derived from smaller coastal rivers draining watersheds limited to the eastern tropics of northeastern South America. The planned drill sites of Expedition 387 will be the marine complement to a transect of continental drill sites. Together, the marine and continental sites form the Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP), a project that is partly funded by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). The TADP addresses fundamental questions about the Cenozoic climatic evolution of the Amazon region, the origins and evolution of the neotropical rain forest and its biodiversity, and the origins and rearrangements of the transcontinental Amazon River. Together, we expect that these IODP and ICDP projects will transform our understanding of Amazonian geological, climatic, biological, and paleoceanographic history.« less