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  1. Rice, J. ; Liu, X. ; Sasanakul, I. ; McIlroy, M. ; Xiao, M. (Ed.)
    Coastal dunes often present the first line of defense for the built environment during extreme wave surge and storm events. In order to protect inland infrastructure, dunes must resist erosion in the face of these incidents. Microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP), or more commonly bio-cementation, can be used to increase the critical shear strength of sand and mitigate erosion. To evaluate the performance of bio-cemented dunes, prototypical dunes consisting of clean poorly graded sand collected from the Oregon coast were constructed within the Large Wave Flume at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory at Oregon State University. The bio-cementation treatmentmore »was sprayed onto the surface of the unsaturated dune. The level of cementation was monitored using shear wave velocity measurements throughout the duration of the treatments. The treated and control dunes were subjected to 19 trials of approximately 300 waves each, with each trial increasing in water depth, wave height, and wave period. The performance of the dune was evaluated using lidar scans between each wave trial. The results indicate that the surface spraying treatment technique produced consistent levels of bio-cementation throughout the treated length of the dune and demonstrated significant resistance to erosion from the wave trails.« less
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  4. The motion of a mechanical object, even a human-sized object, should be governed by the rules of quantum mechanics. Coaxing them into a quantum state is, however, difficult because the thermal environment masks any quantum signature of the object’s motion. The thermal environment also masks the effects of proposed modifications of quantum mechanics at large mass scales. We prepared the center-of-mass motion of a 10-kilogram mechanical oscillator in a state with an average phonon occupation of 10.8. The reduction in temperature, from room temperature to 77 nanokelvin, is commensurate with an 11 orders-of-magnitude suppression of quantum back-action by feedback andmore »a 13 orders-of-magnitude increase in the mass of an object prepared close to its motional ground state. Our approach will enable the possibility of probing gravity on massive quantum systems.

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