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Creators/Authors contains: "Evans, T. Matthew"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
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  4. Abstract

    Erosive beach scarps influence beach vulnerability, yet their formation remains challenging to predict. In this study, a 1:2.5 scale laboratory experiment was used to study the subsurface hydrodynamics of a beach dune during an erosive event. Pressure and moisture sensors buried within the dune were used both to monitor the water table and to examine vertical pressure gradients in the upper 0.3 m of sand as the slope of the upper beach developed into a scarp. Concurrently, a line‐scan lidar tracked swash bores and monitored erosion and accretion patterns along a single cross‐shore transect throughout the experiment. As wave conditions intensified, a discontinuity in the slope of the dune formed; the discontinuity grew steeper and progressed landward at the same rate as theR2%runup extent until it was a fully formed scarp with a vertical face. Within the upper 0.15 m of the partially saturated sand, upward pore pressure gradients were detected during backwash, influencing the effective weight of sand and potentially contributing to beachface erosion. The magnitude and frequency of the upward pressure gradients increased with deeper swash depths and with frequency of wave interaction, and decreased with depth into the sand. A simple conceptual model for scarp formation is proposed that incorporates observations of upward‐directed pressure gradients from this study while providing a reference for future studies seeking to integrate additional swash zone sediment transport processes that may impact scarp development.

     
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  5. Lemnitzer, A. ; Stuedlein, A.W. (Ed.)
    This study presents a laboratory investigation of the monotonic, cyclic, and post-cyclic responses of a lightly overconsolidated, low plasticity silt deposit conducted to support the geotechnical design of a proposed bridge replacement crossing the Willamette River in Corvallis, OR. The design seismic hazard corresponded to the 975-year return period with the Cascadia Subduction Zone contributing the greatest portion of the hazard. The response of the intact, natural specimens was compared to that of specimens reconstituted from the same material for comparison of the effect of soil fabric. Constant-volume cyclic stress controlled direct simple shear tests (CDSS) conducted on the low plasticity silt deposit showed cyclic mobility type behavior and increases in cyclic resistance with OCR. The exponent of the power relationship between cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) and the number of cycles, N, was shown to be smaller than that commonly assumed within the simplified method for cyclic softening of fine-grained plastic soil. Despite higher density, the reconstituted specimens exhibited approximately 16% lower cyclic resistance than their undisturbed counterparts, indicating the importance of soil fabric on the cyclic resistance of natural silt soils. The post-cyclic volumetric strain of the silt deposit was found to be independent of OCR and increased with the maximum excess pore pressure ratio generated during the cyclic tests. 
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