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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  2. Abstract Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) may originate from a wide variety of explosion scenarios and progenitor channels. They exhibit a factor of ≈10 difference in brightness and thus a differentiation in the mass of 56 Ni → 56 Co → 56 Fe. We present a study on the fate of positrons within SNe Ia in order to evaluate their escape fractions and energy spectra. Our detailed Monte Carlo transport simulations for positrons and γ -rays include both β + decay of 56 Co and pair production. We simulate a wide variety of explosion scenarios, including the explosion of white dwarfs (WDs) close to the Chandrasekhar mass ( M Ch ), He-triggered explosions of sub- M Ch WDs, and dynamical mergers of two WDs. For each model, we study the influence of the size and morphology of the progenitor magnetic field between 1 and 10 13 G. Population synthesis based on the observed brightness distribution of SNe Ia was used to estimate the overall contributions to Galactic positrons due to escape from SNe Ia. We find that this is dominated by SNe Ia of normal brightness, where variations in the distribution of emitted positrons are small. We estimate a totalmore »SNe Ia contribution to Galactic positrons of <2% and, depending on the magnetic field morphology, <6–20% for M Ch and sub- M Ch , respectively.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  3. Lemnitzer, A. ; Stuedlein, A.W. (Ed.)
    This study presents a laboratory investigation of the monotonic, cyclic, and post-cyclic responses of a lightly overconsolidated, low plasticity silt deposit conducted to support the geotechnical design of a proposed bridge replacement crossing the Willamette River in Corvallis, OR. The design seismic hazard corresponded to the 975-year return period with the Cascadia Subduction Zone contributing the greatest portion of the hazard. The response of the intact, natural specimens was compared to that of specimens reconstituted from the same material for comparison of the effect of soil fabric. Constant-volume cyclic stress controlled direct simple shear tests (CDSS) conducted on the low plasticity silt deposit showed cyclic mobility type behavior and increases in cyclic resistance with OCR. The exponent of the power relationship between cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) and the number of cycles, N, was shown to be smaller than that commonly assumed within the simplified method for cyclic softening of fine-grained plastic soil. Despite higher density, the reconstituted specimens exhibited approximately 16% lower cyclic resistance than their undisturbed counterparts, indicating the importance of soil fabric on the cyclic resistance of natural silt soils. The post-cyclic volumetric strain of the silt deposit was found to be independent of OCR and increased withmore »the maximum excess pore pressure ratio generated during the cyclic tests.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 17, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  6. Rice, J. ; Liu, X. ; Sasanakul, I. ; McIlroy, M. ; Xiao, M. (Ed.)
    Coastal dunes often present the first line of defense for the built environment during extreme wave surge and storm events. In order to protect inland infrastructure, dunes must resist erosion in the face of these incidents. Microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP), or more commonly bio-cementation, can be used to increase the critical shear strength of sand and mitigate erosion. To evaluate the performance of bio-cemented dunes, prototypical dunes consisting of clean poorly graded sand collected from the Oregon coast were constructed within the Large Wave Flume at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory at Oregon State University. The bio-cementation treatment was sprayed onto the surface of the unsaturated dune. The level of cementation was monitored using shear wave velocity measurements throughout the duration of the treatments. The treated and control dunes were subjected to 19 trials of approximately 300 waves each, with each trial increasing in water depth, wave height, and wave period. The performance of the dune was evaluated using lidar scans between each wave trial. The results indicate that the surface spraying treatment technique produced consistent levels of bio-cementation throughout the treated length of the dune and demonstrated significant resistance to erosion from the wave trails.
  7. Abstract Quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong force, describes interactions of coloured quarks and gluons and the formation of hadronic matter. Conventional hadronic matter consists of baryons and mesons made of three quarks and quark-antiquark pairs, respectively. Particles with an alternative quark content are known as exotic states. Here a study is reported of an exotic narrow state in the D 0 D 0 π + mass spectrum just below the D *+ D 0 mass threshold produced in proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The state is consistent with the ground isoscalar $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + tetraquark with a quark content of $${{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}\overline{{{{{{\rm{u}}}}}}}\overline{{{{{{\rm{d}}}}}}}$$ c c u ¯ d ¯ and spin-parity quantum numbers J P  = 1 + . Study of the DD mass spectra disfavours interpretation of the resonance as the isovector state. The decay structure via intermediate off-shell D *+ mesons is consistent with the observed D 0 π + mass distribution. To analyse the mass of the resonance and its coupling to the D * D system, a dedicated model is developed under the assumption of an isoscalar axial-vector $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + state decaying to the Dmore »* D channel. Using this model, resonance parameters including the pole position, scattering length, effective range and compositeness are determined to reveal important information about the nature of the $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + state. In addition, an unexpected dependence of the production rate on track multiplicity is observed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023