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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. Abstract
    Abstract An ice storm simulation was performed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest to evaluate impacts of these extreme weather events on northern hardwood forests. Water was pumped from the main branch of Hubbard Brook and sprayed above the forest canopy in subfreezing conditions so that it rained down and froze on contact with trees. The experiment consisted of five treatments, including a control (no ice) and three target levels of radial ice accretion: low (6.4 mm), mid (12.7 mm), and high (19.0 mm). Two of the mid-level treatment plots (midx2) were iced in back-to-back years to evaluate impacts of consecutive storms. This dataset consists of hemispherical photographs of the forest canopy with leaves on and off the trees before and after the various ice treatments. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station.
  3. Canopy defoliation is an important source of disturbance in forest ecosystems that has rarely been represented in large-scale manipulation experiments. Scalable crown to canopy level experimental defoliation is needed to disentangle the effects of variable intensity, timing, and frequency on forest structure, function, and mortality. We present a novel pressure-washing-based defoliation method that can be implemented at the canopy-scale, throughout the canopy volume, targeted to individual leaves or trees, and completed within a timeframe of hours or days. Pressure washing proved successful at producing consistent leaf-level and whole-canopy defoliation, with 10%–20% reduction in leaf area index and consistent leaf surface area removal across branches and species. This method allows for stand-scale experimentation on defoliation disturbance in forested ecosystems and has the potential for broad application. Studies utilizing this standardized method could promote mechanistic understanding of defoliation effects on ecosystem structure and function and development of synthetic understanding across forest types, ecoregions, and defoliation sources.
  4. Abstract
    To evaluate the effects of ice storm disturbance on forest canopy structure and complexity terrestrial lidar data were collected within the Hubbard Brook Ice Storm Experiment plots starting in 2015 (prior to ice treatment) and annually thereafter. Data were collected using a ground-based portable canopy lidar (PCL) system during the growing season in August of each year along 5 permanently marked 30 m transects in each 20 x 30 m ISE plot. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station.
  5. Zarnetske, Phoebe (Ed.)
  6. Structural diversity is a key feature of forest ecosystems that influences ecosystem functions from local to macroscales. The ability to measure structural diversity in forests with varying ecological composition and management history can improve the understanding of linkages between forest structure and ecosystem functioning. Terrestrial LiDAR has often been used to provide a detailed characterization of structural diversity at local scales, but it is largely unknown whether these same structural features are detectable using aerial LiDAR data that are available across larger spatial scales. We used univariate and multivariate analyses to quantify cross-compatibility of structural diversity metrics from terrestrial versus aerial LiDAR in seven National Ecological Observatory Network sites across the eastern USA. We found strong univariate agreement between terrestrial and aerial LiDAR metrics of canopy height, openness, internal heterogeneity, and leaf area, but found marginal agreement between metrics that described heterogeneity of the outermost layer of the canopy. Terrestrial and aerial LiDAR both demonstrated the ability to distinguish forest sites from structural diversity metrics in multivariate space, but terrestrial LiDAR was able to resolve finer-scale detail within sites. Our findings indicated that aerial LiDAR could be of use in quantifying broad-scale variation in structural diversity across macroscales.
  7. null (Ed.)