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  1. Abstract

    Random quantum states serve as a powerful tool in various scientific fields, including quantum supremacy and black hole physics. It has been theoretically predicted that entanglement transitions may happen for different partitions of multipartite random quantum states; however, the experimental observation of these transitions is still absent. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the entanglement transitions witnessed by negativity on a fully connected superconducting processor. We apply parallel entangling operations, that significantly decrease the depth of the pseudo-random circuits, to generate pseudo-random pure states of up to 15 qubits. By quantum state tomography of the reduced density matrix of six qubits, we measure the negativity spectra. Then, by changing the sizes of the environment and subsystems, we observe the entanglement transitions that are directly identified by logarithmic entanglement negativities based on the negativity spectra. In addition, we characterize the randomness of our circuits by measuring the distance between the distribution of output bit-string probabilities and the Porter-Thomas distribution. Our results show that superconducting processors with all-to-all connectivity constitute a promising platform for generating random states and understanding the entanglement structure of multipartite quantum systems.

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  4. Wavelength transduction of single-photon signals is indispensable to networked quantum applications, particularly those incorporating quantum memories. Lithium niobate nanophotonic devices have demonstrated favorable linear, nonlinear, and electro-optical properties to deliver this crucial function while offering superior efficiency, integrability, and scalability. Yet, their quantum noise level—a crucial metric for any single-photon-based application—has yet to be investigated. In this work, we report the first, to the best of our knowledge, study with the focus on telecom to near-visible conversion driven by a small detuned telecom pump for practical considerations in distributed quantum processing over fiber networks. Our results find the noise level to be on the order of10−<#comment/>4photons per time-frequency mode for high conversion, allowing faithful pulsed operations. Through carefully analyzing the origins of such noise and each’s dependence on the pump power and wavelength detuning, we have also identified a formula for noise suppression to10−<#comment/>5photons per mode. Our results assert a viable, low-cost, and modular approach to networked quantum processing and beyond using lithium niobate nanophotonics.

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