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  1. Background: A key challenge in estimating epidemiological parameters for a pandemic such as the initial COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan is the discrepancy between the officially reported number of infections and the true number of infections. A common approach to tackling the challenge is to use the number of infections exported from the originating city to infer the true number. This approach can only provide a static estimate of the epidemiological parameters before city lockdown because there are almost no exported cases thereafter.Methods: We propose a Bayesian estimation method that dynamically estimates the epidemiological parameters by recovering true numbers of infections from day-to-day official numbers. To illustrate the use of this method, we provide a comprehensive retrospection on how the COVID-19 had progressed in Wuhan from January 19 to March 5, 2020. Particularly, we estimate that the outbreak sizes by January 23 and March 5 were 11,239 [95% CI 4,794–22,372] and 124,506 [95% CI 69,526–265,113], respectively.Results: The effective reproduction number attained its maximum on January 24 (3.42 [95% CI 3.34–3.50]) and became less than 1 from February 7 (0.76 [95% CI 0.65–0.92]). We also estimate the effects of two major government interventions on the spread of COVID-19 in Wuhan.Conclusions: This casemore »study by our proposed method affirms the believed importance and effectiveness of imposing tight non-essential travel restrictions and affirm the importance and effectiveness of government interventions (e.g., transportation suspension and large scale hospitalization) for effective mitigation of COVID-19 community spread.« less
  2. ABSTRACT We simulate the scientific performance of the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope High Latitude Survey (HLS) on dark energy and modified gravity. The 1.6-yr HLS Reference survey is currently envisioned to image 2000 deg2 in multiple bands to a depth of ∼26.5 in Y, J, H and to cover the same area with slit-less spectroscopy beyond z = 3. The combination of deep, multiband photometry and deep spectroscopy will allow scientists to measure the growth and geometry of the Universe through a variety of cosmological probes (e.g. weak lensing, galaxy clusters, galaxy clustering, BAO, Type Ia supernova) and, equally, it will allow an exquisite control of observational and astrophysical systematic effects. In this paper, we explore multiprobe strategies that can be implemented, given the telescope’s instrument capabilities. We model cosmological probes individually and jointly and account for correlated systematics and statistical uncertainties due to the higher order moments of the density field. We explore different levels of observational systematics for the HLS survey (photo-z and shear calibration) and ultimately run a joint likelihood analysis in N-dim parameter space. We find that the HLS reference survey alone can achieve a standard dark energy FoM of >300 when including all probes. This assumes no information frommore »external data sets, we assume a flat universe however, and includes realistic assumptions for systematics. Our study of the HLS reference survey should be seen as part of a future community-driven effort to simulate and optimize the science return of the Roman Space Telescope.« less
  3. ABSTRACT We explore synergies between the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope and the Vera Rubin Observatory’s Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST). Specifically, we consider scenarios where the currently envisioned survey strategy for the Roman Space Telescope’s High Latitude Survey (HLS reference), i.e. 2000 deg2 in four narrow photometric bands is altered in favour of a strategy of rapid coverage of the LSST area (to full LSST depth) in one band. We find that in only five months, a survey in the W-band can cover the full LSST survey area providing high-resolution imaging for >95 per cent of the LSST Year 10 gold galaxy sample. We explore a second, more ambitious scenario where the Roman Space Telescope spends 1.5 yr covering the LSST area. For this second scenario, we quantify the constraining power on dark energy equation-of-state parameters from a joint weak lensing and galaxy clustering analysis. Our survey simulations are based on the Roman Space Telescope exposure-time calculator and redshift distributions from the CANDELS catalogue. Our statistical uncertainties account for higher order correlations of the density field, and we include a wide range of systematic effects, such as uncertainties in shape and redshift measurements, and modelling uncertainties of astrophysical systematics, such asmore »galaxy bias, intrinsic galaxy alignment, and baryonic physics. We find a significant increase in constraining power for the joint LSST + HLS wide survey compared to LSST Y10 (FoMHLSwide = 2.4 FoMLSST) and compared to LSST + HLS (FoMHLSwide = 5.5 FoMHLSref).« less
  4. Liu, W. ; Wang, Y. ; Guo, B. ; Tang, X. ; Zeng, S. (Ed.)
    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment in China (JUNA) has been commissioned by taking the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current mA level 400 KV accelerator with an ECR source and BGO detectors were commissioned. JUNA studies directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. In the first quarter of 2021, JUNA performed the direct measurements of 25 Mg(p, γ ) 26 Al, 19 F(p, α ) 16 O, 13 C( α ,n) 16 O and 12 C( α , γ ) 16 O near the Gamow window. The experimental results reflect the potential of JUNA with higher statistics, precision and sensitivity of the data. The preliminary results of JUNA experiment and future plan are given.
  5. ABSTRACT Measurements of large-scale structure are interpreted using theoretical predictions for the matter distribution, including potential impacts of baryonic physics. We constrain the feedback strength of baryons jointly with cosmology using weak lensing and galaxy clustering observables (3 × 2pt) of Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 data in combination with external information from baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and Planck cosmic microwave background polarization. Our baryon modelling is informed by a set of hydrodynamical simulations that span a variety of baryon scenarios; we span this space via a Principal Component (PC) analysis of the summary statistics extracted from these simulations. We show that at the level of DES Y1 constraining power, one PC is sufficient to describe the variation of baryonic effects in the observables, and the first PC amplitude (Q1) generally reflects the strength of baryon feedback. With the upper limit of Q1 prior being bound by the Illustris feedback scenarios, we reach $\sim 20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ improvement in the constraint of $S_8=\sigma _8(\Omega _{\rm m}/0.3)^{0.5}=0.788^{+0.018}_{-0.021}$ compared to the original DES 3 × 2pt analysis. This gain is driven by the inclusion of small-scale cosmic shear information down to 2.5 arcmin, which was excluded in previous DES analyses that did not model baryonicmore »physics. We obtain $S_8=0.781^{+0.014}_{-0.015}$ for the combined DES Y1+Planck EE+BAO analysis with a non-informative Q1 prior. In terms of the baryon constraints, we measure $Q_1=1.14^{+2.20}_{-2.80}$ for DES Y1 only and $Q_1=1.42^{+1.63}_{-1.48}$ for DESY1+Planck EE+BAO, allowing us to exclude one of the most extreme AGN feedback hydrodynamical scenario at more than 2σ.« less