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Creators/Authors contains: "Fang, Yinzhi"

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  1. Abstract

    Beta-hydroxy non-standard amino acids (β-OH-nsAAs) have utility as small molecule drugs, precursors for beta-lactone antibiotics, and building blocks for polypeptides. While the L-threonine transaldolase (TTA), ObiH, is a promising enzyme for β-OH-nsAA biosynthesis, little is known about other natural TTA sequences. We ascertained the specificity of the TTA enzyme class more comprehensively by characterizing 12 candidate TTA gene products across a wide range (20-80%) of sequence identities. We found that addition of a solubility tag substantially enhanced the soluble protein expression level within this difficult-to-express enzyme family. Using an optimized coupled enzyme assay, we identified six TTAs, including one with less than 30% sequence identity to ObiH that exhibits broader substrate scope, two-fold higher L-Threonine (L-Thr) affinity, and five-fold faster initial reaction rates under conditions tested. We harnessed these TTAs for first-time bioproduction of β-OH-nsAAs with handles for bio-orthogonal conjugation from supplemented precursors during aerobic fermentation of engineeredEscherichia coli, where we observed that higher affinity of the TTA for L-Thr increased titer. Overall, our work reveals an unexpectedly high level of sequence diversity and broad substrate specificity in an enzyme family whose members play key roles in the biosynthesis of therapeutic natural products that could benefit from chemical diversification.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Since tetrazines are important tools to the field of bioorthogonal chemistry, there is a need for new approaches to synthesize unsymmetrical and 3‐monosubstituted tetrazines. Described here is a general, one‐pot method for converting (3‐methyloxetan‐3‐yl)methyl carboxylic esters into 3‐thiomethyltetrazines. These versatile intermediates were applied to the synthesis of unsymmetrical tetrazines through Pd‐catalyzed cross‐coupling and in the first catalytic thioether reduction to access monosubstituted tetrazines. This method enables the development of new tetrazine compounds possessing a favorable combination of kinetics, small size, and hydrophilicity. It was applied to a broad range of aliphatic and aromatic ester precursors and to the synthesis of heterocycles including BODIPY fluorophores and biotin. In addition, a series of tetrazine probes for monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) were synthesized and the most reactive one was applied to the labeling of endogenous MAGL in live cells.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Since tetrazines are important tools to the field of bioorthogonal chemistry, there is a need for new approaches to synthesize unsymmetrical and 3‐monosubstituted tetrazines. Described here is a general, one‐pot method for converting (3‐methyloxetan‐3‐yl)methyl carboxylic esters into 3‐thiomethyltetrazines. These versatile intermediates were applied to the synthesis of unsymmetrical tetrazines through Pd‐catalyzed cross‐coupling and in the first catalytic thioether reduction to access monosubstituted tetrazines. This method enables the development of new tetrazine compounds possessing a favorable combination of kinetics, small size, and hydrophilicity. It was applied to a broad range of aliphatic and aromatic ester precursors and to the synthesis of heterocycles including BODIPY fluorophores and biotin. In addition, a series of tetrazine probes for monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) were synthesized and the most reactive one was applied to the labeling of endogenous MAGL in live cells.

     
    more » « less