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  1. Abstract Background

    The evening primrose family (Onagraceae) includes 664 species (803 taxa) with a center of diversity in the Americas, especially western North America. Ongoing research in Onagraceae includes exploring striking variation in floral morphology, scent composition, and breeding system, as well as the role of these traits in driving diversity among plants and their interacting pollinators and herbivores. However, these efforts are limited by the lack of a comprehensive, well-resolved phylogeny. Previous phylogenetic studies based on a few loci strongly support the monophyly of the family and the sister relationship of the two largest tribes but fail to resolve several key relationships.


    We used a target enrichment approach to reconstruct the phylogeny of Onagraceae using 303 highly conserved, low-copy nuclear loci. We present a phylogeny for Onagraceae with 169 individuals representing 152 taxa sampled across the family, including extensive sampling within the largest tribe, Onagreae. Deep splits within the family are strongly supported, whereas relationships among closely related genera and species are characterized by extensive conflict among individual gene trees.


    This phylogenetic resource will augment current research projects focused throughout the family in genomics, ecology, coevolutionary dynamics, biogeography, and the evolution of characters driving diversification in the family.

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  2. Abstract

    Oenothera sect. Calylophus is a North American group of 13 recognized taxa in the evening primrose family (Onagraceae) with an evolutionary history that may include independent origins of bee pollination, edaphic endemism, and permanent translocation heterozygosity. Like other groups that radiated relatively recently and rapidly, taxon boundaries within Oenothera sect. Calylophus have remained challenging to circumscribe. In this study, we used target enrichment, flanking noncoding regions, gene tree/species tree methods, tests for gene flow modified for target-enrichment data, and morphometric analysis to reconstruct phylogenetic hypotheses, evaluate current taxon circumscriptions, and examine character evolution in Oenothera sect. Calylophus. Because sect. Calylophus comprises a clade with a relatively restricted geographic range, we were able to extensively sample across the range of geographic, edaphic, and morphological diversity in the group. We found that the combination of exons and flanking noncoding regions led to improved support for species relationships. We reconstructed potential hybrid origins of some accessions and note that if processes such as hybridization are not taken into account, the number of inferred evolutionary transitions may be artificially inflated. We recovered strong evidence for multiple evolutionary origins of bee pollination from ancestral hawkmoth pollination, edaphic specialization on gypsum, and permanent translocation heterozygosity. This study applies newly emerging techniques alongside dense infraspecific sampling and morphological analyses to effectively reconstruct the recalcitrant history of a rapid radiation. [Gypsum endemism; Oenothera sect. Calylophus; Onagraceae; phylogenomics; pollinator shift; recent radiation; target enrichment.]

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  3. Seed sourcing decisions affect short‐ and long‐term restoration outcomes. Seeds sourced closer to restoration sites are likely to be better adapted to local conditions and therefore may perform better than those sourced farther away, following assumptions of local adaptation. However, plants may not be adapted to future conditions under climate change; hence, managers are considering a predictive provenancing approach, where plant materials adapted to predicted conditions are used at a site. Currently, there is little empirical evidence available to inform this approach. To address this, we evaluate predictive provenancing using three species of forbs used in tallgrass prairie restorations (Allium cernuum,Chamaecrista fasciculata, andRudbeckia hirta) in a common garden experiment in northeastern Illinois, U.S.A. We compared the fitness in plants sourced from three regional zones across a latitudinal gradient that represents different climate projections, relative to the planting site. Data were analyzed using Aster life‐history models and generalized linear models. We found that source affected overall fitness in all three species, but no climate proxy had the highest fitness across all species. The performance at each life stage had different effects on overall fitness, which varied by source. We observed later reproductive phenology in southern‐sourced plants for all three species, possibly due to adaptation to longer growing seasons. The mixed results of this study suggest that climate proxy alone would not be sufficient to determine an effective and accurate predictive provenancing strategy. Long‐term tests are needed to pursue such a strategy for high‐priority species.

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  4. Premise

    Divergence depends on the strength of selection and frequency of gene flow between taxa, while reproductive isolation relies on mating barriers and geographic distance. Less is known about how these processes interact at early stages of speciation. Here, we compared population‐level differentiation in floral phenotype and genetic sequence variation among recently divergedCastillejato explore patterns of diversification under different scenarios of reproductive isolation.


    Using target enrichment enabled by the Angiosperms353 probe set, we assessed genetic distance among 50 populations of fourCastillejaspecies. We investigated whether patterns of genetic divergence are explained by floral trait variation or geographic distance in two focal groups: the widespreadC. sessilifloraand the more restrictedC. purpureaspecies complex.


    We document thatC. sessilifloraand theC. purpureacomplex are characterized by high diversity in floral color across varying geographic scales. Despite phenotypic divergence, groups were not well supported in phylogenetic analyses, and little genetic differentiation was found across targeted Angiosperms353 loci. Nonetheless, a principal coordinate analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed differentiation withinC. sessilifloraacross floral morphs and geography and less differentiation among species of theC. purpureacomplex.


    Patterns of genetic distance inC. sessiliflorasuggest species cohesion maintained over long distances despite variation in floral traits. In theC. purpureacomplex, divergence in floral color across narrow geographic clines may be driven by recent selection on floral color. These contrasting patterns of floral and genetic differentiation reveal that divergence can arise via multiple eco‐evolutionary paths.

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