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  1. Protein transfer into nanoscale compartments is critical for many cellular/life processes, yet there are few reports on how compartment properties impact the protein orientation during a transfer. Such a knowledge gap limits a deeper understanding of the protein transfer mechanism, which could be bridged using nanoporous materials. Here, we use a mesoporous silica, a covalent organic framework, and a metal-organic framework with charged, hydrophobic, and neutral surfaces, respectively, to elucidate the impact of channel properties on the transfer of a model protein, lysozyme. Using site-directed spin labeling and time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we reveal that the transfer can bemore »a multi-step process depending on channel properties and depict the relative orientation changes of lysozyme upon transfer into each channel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first structural insight into protein orientation upon transfer into different compartments, meaningful for the rational design of synthetic materials to host enzymes or mimic the cellular compartments.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 22, 2022
  2. Co-precipitation of enzymes in metal-organic frameworks is a unique enzyme-immobilization strategy but is challenged by weak acid-base stability. To overcome this drawback, we discovered that Ca2+ can co-precipitate with carboxylate ligands and enzymes under ambient aqueous conditions and form enzyme@metal-organic material composites stable under a wide range of pHs (3.7–9.5). We proved this strategy on four enzymes with varied isoelectric points, molecular weights, and substrate sizes—lysozyme, lipase, glucose oxidase (GOx), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)—as well as the cluster of HRP and GOx. Interestingly, the catalytic efficiency of the studied enzymes was found to depend on the ligand, probing the originsmore »of which resulted in a correlation among enzyme backbone dynamics, ligand selection, and catalytic efficiency. Our approach resolved the long-lasting stability issue of aqueous-phase co-precipitation and can be generalized to biocatalysis with other enzymes to benefit both research and industry.« less