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  1. Context. The variety of physical processes at play in chemically peculiar stars makes it difficult to determine their fundamental parameters. In particular, for the magnetic ones, called Ap stars, the strong magnetic fields and the induced spotted stellar surfaces may lead to biased effective temperatures when these values are derived through spectro-photometry. Aims. We propose to benefit from the exquisite angular resolution provided by long-baseline interferometry in the visible to determine the accurate angular diameters of a number of Ap stars, and thus estimate their radii by a method that is as independent as possible of atmospheric models. Methods. We used the visible spectrograph VEGA at the CHARA interferometric array to complete the sample of Ap stars currently observable with this technique. We estimated the angular diameter and radius of six new targets. We estimated their bolometric flux based solely on observational spectroscopic and photometric data to derive nearly model-independent luminosities and effective temperatures. Results. We extend to 14 the number of Ap stars for which interferometric angular diameters have been measured. The fundamental parameters we derived for the complete Ap sample are compared with those obtained through a self-consistent spectroscopic analysis. Based on a model fitting approach of high-resolutionmore »spectra and spectro-photometric observations over a wide wavelength range, this method takes into account the anomalous chemical composition of the atmospheres and the inhomogeneous vertical distribution for different chemical elements. Regarding both the radii and the effective temperatures, the derived values from our interferometric observations and from self-consistent modelling are consistent within better than 2 σ for nine targets out of ten. We thus benchmark nine Ap stars for effective temperatures ranging from 7200 and 9100 K, and luminosities ranging between 7 L ⊙ and 86 L ⊙ . Conclusions. These results will be key for the future derivation of accurate radii and other fundamental parameters of fainter peculiar stars for which both the sensitivity and the angular resolution of the current interferometers are not sufficient. Within the context of the observations of Ap stars with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), these interferometric measurements are crucial for testing the mechanism of pulsation excitation at work in these peculiar stars. In particular, our interferometric measurements provide accurate locations in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for hot Ap stars among which pulsations may be searched for with TESS, putting to test the blue edge of the theoretical instability strip. These accurate locations could be used to derive masses and ages of these stars through a specific grid of models, and to test correlations between the properties of these peculiar stars and their evolutionary state.« less
  2. Context. Surface brightness–colour relations (SBCRs) are used to derive the stellar angular diameters from photometric observations. They have various astrophysical applications, such as the distance determination of eclipsing binaries or the determination of exoplanet parameters. However, strong discrepancies between the SBCRs still exist in the literature, in particular for early and late-type stars. Aims. We aim to calibrate new SBCRs as a function of the spectral type and the luminosity class of the stars. Our goal is also to apply homogeneous criteria to the selection of the reference stars and in view of compiling an exhaustive and up-to-date list of interferometric late-type targets. Methods. We implemented criteria to select measurements in the JMMC Measured Diameters Catalog. We then applied additional criteria on the photometric measurements used to build the SBCRs, together with stellar characteristics diagnostics. Results. We built SBCRs for F5/K7–II/III, F5/K7–IV/V, M–II/III and M–V stars, with respective rms of σ F V  = 0.0022 mag, σ F V  = 0.0044 mag, σ F V  = 0.0046 mag, and σ F V  = 0.0038 mag. This results in a precision on the angular diameter of 1.0%, 2.0%, 2.1%, and 1.7%, respectively. These relations cover a large V  −  K colour range of magnitude, frommore »1 to 7.5. Our work demonstrates that SBCRs are significantly dependent on the spectral type and the luminosity class of the star. Through a new set of interferometric measurements, we demonstrate the critical importance of the selection criteria proposed for the calibration of SBCR. Finally, using the Gaia photometry for our samples, we obtained ( G  −  K ) SBCRs with a precision on the angular diameter between 1.1% and 2.4%. Conclusions. By adopting a refined and homogeneous methodology, we show that the spectral type and the class of the star should be considered when applying an SBCR. This is particularly important in the context of PLATO.« less
  3. Context. Rapid rotation is a common feature for massive stars, with important consequences on their physical structure, flux distribution and evolution. Fast-rotating stars are flattened and show gravity darkening (non-uniform surface intensity distribution). Another important and less studied impact of fast-rotation in early-type stars is its influence on the surface brightness colour relation (hereafter SBCR), which could be used to derive the distance of eclipsing binaries. Aims. The purpose of this paper is to determine the flattening of the fast-rotating B-type star δ Per using visible long-baseline interferometry. A second goal is to evaluate the impact of rotation and gravity darkening on the V − K colour and surface brightness of the star. Methods. The B-type star δ Per was observed with the VEGA/CHARA interferometer, which can measure spatial resolutions down to 0.3 mas and spectral resolving power of 5000 in the visible. We first used a toy model to derive the position angle of the rotation axis of the star in the plane of the sky. Then we used a code of stellar rotation, CHARRON, in order to derive the physical parameters of the star. Finally, by considering two cases, a static reference star and our best model ofmore »δ Per, we can quantify the impact of fast rotation on the surface brightness colour relation (SBCR). Results. We find a position angle of 23 ± 6 degrees. The polar axis angular diameter of δ Per is θ p = 0.544 ± 0.007 mas, and the derived flatness is r = 1.121 ± 0.013. We derive an inclination angle for the star of i = 85 + 5 -20 degrees and a projected rotation velocity V sin i = 175 + 8 -11 km s -1 (or 57% of the critical velocity). We find also that the rotation and inclination angle of δ Per keeps the V − K colour unchanged while it decreasing its surface-brightness by about 0.05 mag. Conclusions. Correcting the impact of rotation on the SBCR of early-type stars appears feasible using visible interferometry and dedicated models.« less