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  1. ABSTRACT Earthquake ground motions in the vicinity of receivers couple with the atmosphere to generate pressure perturbations that are detectable by infrasound sensors. These so-called local infrasound signals traverse very short source-to-receiver paths, so that they often exhibit a remarkable correlation with seismic velocity waveforms at collocated seismic stations, and there exists a simple relationship between vertical seismic velocity and pressure time series. This study leverages the large regional network of infrasound sensors in Alaska to examine local infrasound from several light to great Alaska earthquakes. We estimate seismic velocity time series from infrasound pressure records and use these converted infrasound recordings to compute earthquake magnitudes. This technique has potential utility beyond the novelty of recording seismic velocities on pressure sensors. Because local infrasound amplitudes from ground motions are small, it is possible to recover seismic velocities at collocated sites where the broadband seismometers have clipped. Infrasound-derived earthquake magnitudes exhibit good agreement with seismically derived values. This proof-of-concept demonstration of computing seismic magnitudes from infrasound sensors illustrates that infrasound sensors may be utilized as proxy vertical-component seismometers, making a new data set available for existing seismic techniques. Because single-sensor infrasound stations are relatively inexpensive and are becoming ubiquitous, this technique could be used to augment existing regional seismic networks using a readily available sensor platform. 
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  2. ABSTRACT Earthquakes generate infrasound in multiple ways. Acoustic coupling at the surface from vertical seismic velocity, termed local infrasound, is often recorded by infrasound sensors but has seen relatively little study. Over 140 infrasound stations have recently been deployed in Alaska. Most of these stations have single sensors, rather than arrays, and were originally installed as part of the EarthScope Transportable Array. The single sensor nature, paucity of ground-truth signals, and remoteness makes evaluating their data quality and utility challenging. In addition, despite notable recent advances, infrasound calibration and frequency response evaluation remains challenging, particularly for large networks and retrospective analysis of sensors already installed. Here, we examine local seismoacoustic coupling on colocated seismic and infrasound stations in Alaska. Numerous large earthquakes across the region in recent years generated considerable vertical seismic velocity and local infrasound that were recorded on colocated sensors. We build on previous work and evaluate the full infrasound station frequency response using seismoacoustic coupled waves. By employing targeted signal processing techniques, we show that a single seismometer may be sufficient for characterizing the response of an entire nearby infrasound array. We find that good low frequency (<1 Hz) infrasound station response estimates can be derived from large (Mw>7) earthquakes out to at least 1500 km. High infrasound noise levels at some stations and seismic-wave energy focused at low frequencies limit our response estimates. The response of multiple stations in Alaska is found to differ considerably from their metadata and are related to improper installation and erroneous metadata. Our method provides a robust way to remotely examine infrasound station frequency response and examine seismoacoustic coupling, which is being increasingly used in airborne infrasound observations, earthquake magnitude estimation, and other applications. 
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  3. Volcanic earthquake catalogs are an essential data product used to interpret subsurface volcanic activity and forecast eruptions. Advances in detection techniques (e.g., matched-filtering, machine learning) and relative relocation tools have improved catalog completeness and refined event locations. However, most volcano observatories have yet to incorporate these techniques into their catalog-building workflows. This is due in part to complexities in operationalizing, automating, and calibrating these techniques in a satisfactory way for disparate volcano networks and their varied seismicity. In an effort to streamline the integration of catalog-enhancing tools at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), we have integrated four popular open-source tools: REDPy, EQcorrscan, HypoDD, and GrowClust. The combination of these tools offers the capability of adding seismic event detections and relocating events in a single workflow. The workflow relies on a combination of standard triggering and cross-correlation clustering (REDPy) to consolidate representative templates used in matched-filtering (EQcorrscan). The templates and their detections are then relocated using the differential time methods provided by HypoDD and/or GrowClust. Our workflow also provides codes to incorporate campaign data at appropriate junctures, and calculate magnitude and frequency index for valid events. We apply this workflow to three datasets: the 2012–2013 seismic swarm sequence at Mammoth Mountain (California), the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano (Alaska), and the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano (Alaska); and compare our results with previous studies at each volcano. In general, our workflow provides a significant increase in the number of events and improved locations, and we relate the event clusters and temporal progressions to relevant volcanic activity. We also discuss workflow implementation best practices, particularly in applying these tools to sparse volcano seismic networks. We envision that our workflow and the datasets presented here will be useful for detailed volcano analyses in monitoring and research efforts.

     
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  4. Abstract Laterally directed explosive eruptions are responsible for multiple fatalities over the past decade and are an increasingly important volcanology problem. To understand the energy dynamics for these events, we collected field-scale explosion data from nine acoustic sensors surrounding a tiltable cannon as part of an exploratory experimental design. For each cannon discharge, the blast direction was varied systematically at 0°, 12°, and 24° from vertical, capturing acoustic wavefield directivity related to the tilt angle. While each event was similar in energy discharge potential, the resulting acoustic signal features were variable event-to-event, producing non-repetitious waveforms and spectra. Systematic features were observed in a subset of individual events for vertical and lateral discharges. For vertical discharges, the acoustic energy had a uniform radiation pattern. The lateral discharges showed an asymmetric radiation pattern with higher frequencies in the direction of the blast and depletion of those frequencies behind the cannon. Results suggest that, in natural volcanic systems, near-field blast directionality may be elucidated from acoustic sensors in absence of visual data, with implications for volcano monitoring and hazard assessment. Graphical Abstract 
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  5. Abstract Volcano infrasound data contain a wealth of information about eruptive patterns, for which machine learning (ML) is an emerging analysis tool. Although global catalogs of labeled infrasound events exist, the application of supervised ML to local (<15 km) volcano infrasound signals has been limited by a lack of robust labeled datasets. Here, we automatically generate a labeled dataset of >7500 explosions recorded by a five-station infrasound network at the highly active Yasur Volcano, Vanuatu. Explosions are located via backprojection and associated with one of Yasur’s two summit subcraters. We then apply a supervised ML approach to classify the subcrater of origin. When trained and tested on data from the same station, our chosen algorithm is >95% accurate; when training and testing on different stations, accuracy drops to about 75%. The choice of waveform features provided to the algorithm strongly influences classification performance. 
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  6. Real-time monitoring is crucial to assess hazards and mitigate risks of sustained volcanic eruptions that last hours to months or more. Sustained eruptions have been shown to produce a low frequency (infrasonic) form of jet noise. We analyze the lava fountaining at fissure 8 during the 2018 Lower East Rift Zone eruption of Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii, and connect changes in fountain properties with recorded infrasound signals from an array about 500 m from the fountain using jet noise scaling laws and visual imagery. Video footage from the eruption reveals a change in lava fountain dynamics from a tall, distinct fountain at the beginning of June to a low fountain with a turbulent, out-pouring lava pond surrounded by a tephra cone by mid-June. During mid-June, the sound pressure level reaches a maximum, and peak frequency drops. We develop a model that uses jet noise scaling relationships to estimate changes in volcanic jet diameter and jet velocity from infrasound sound pressure levels and peak frequencies. The results of this model indicate a decrease in velocity in mid-June which coincides with the decrease in fountain height. Furthermore, the model results suggest an increase in jet diameter, which can be explained by the larger width of the fountain that resembles a turbulent lava pond compared to the distinct fountain at the beginning of June. The agreement between the infrasound-derived and visually observed changes in fountain dynamics suggests that jet noise scaling relationships can be used to monitor lava fountain dynamics using infrasound recordings. 
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  7. Abstract Infrasound data from arrays can be used to detect, locate, and quantify a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources from local to remote distances. However, many array processing methods use a single broad frequency range to process the data, which can lead to signals of interest being missed due to the choice of frequency limits or simultaneous clutter sources. We introduce a new open-source Python code that processes infrasound array data in multiple sequential narrow frequency bands using the least-squares approach. We test our algorithm on a few examples of natural sources (volcanic eruptions, mass movements, and bolides) for a variety of array configurations. Our method reduces the need to choose frequency limits for processing, which may result in missed signals, and it is parallelized to decrease the computational burden. Improvements of our narrow-band least-squares algorithm over broad-band least-squares processing include the ability to distinguish between multiple simultaneous sources if distinct in their frequency content (e.g., microbarom or surf vs. volcanic eruption), the ability to track changes in frequency content of a signal through time, and a decreased need to fine-tune frequency limits for processing. We incorporate a measure of planarity of the wavefield across the array (sigma tau, στ) as well as the ability to utilize the robust least trimmed squares algorithm to improve signal processing and insight into array performance. Our implementation allows for more detailed characterization of infrasound signals recorded at arrays that can improve monitoring and enhance research capabilities. 
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  8. Abstract The addition of 108 infrasound sensors—a legacy of the temporary USArray Transportable Array (TA) deployment—to the Alaska regional network provides an unprecedented opportunity to quantify the effects of a diverse set of site conditions on ambient infrasound noise levels. TA station locations were not chosen to optimize infrasound performance, and consequently span a dramatic range of land cover types, from temperate rain forest to exposed tundra. In this study, we compute power spectral densities for 2020 data and compile new ambient infrasound low- and high-noise models for the region. In addition, we compare time series of root-mean-squared (rms) amplitudes with wind data and high-resolution land cover data to derive noise–wind speed relationships for several land cover categories. We observe that noise levels for the network are dominated by wind, and that network noise is generally higher in the winter months when storms are more frequent and the microbarom is more pronounced. Wind direction also exerts control on noise levels, likely as a result of infrasound ports being systematically located on the east side of the station huts. We find that rms amplitudes correlate with site land cover type, and that knowledge of both land cover type and wind speed can help predict infrasound noise levels. Our results show that land cover data can be used to inform infrasound station site selection, and that wind–noise models that incorporate station land cover type are useful tools for understanding general station noise performance. 
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  9. SUMMARY

    Infrasound sensors are deployed in a variety of spatial configurations and scales for geophysical monitoring, including networks of single sensors and networks of multisensor infrasound arrays. Infrasound signal detection strategies exploiting these data commonly make use of intersensor correlation and coherence (array processing, multichannel correlation); network-based tracking of signal features (e.g. reverse time migration); or a combination of these such as backazimuth cross-bearings for multiple arrays. Single-sensor trace-based denoising techniques offer significant potential to improve all of these various infrasound data processing strategies, but have not previously been investigated in detail. Single-sensor denoising represents a pre-processing step that could reduce the effects of ambient infrasound and wind noise in infrasound signal association and location workflows. We systematically investigate the utility of a range of single-sensor denoising methods for infrasound data processing, including noise gating, non-negative matrix factorization, and data-adaptive Wiener filtering. For the data testbed, we use the relatively dense regional infrasound network in Alaska, which records a high rate of volcanic eruptions with signals varying in power, duration, and waveform and spectral character. We primarily use data from the 2016–2017 Bogoslof volcanic eruption, which included multiple explosions, and synthetics. The Bogoslof volcanic sequence provides an opportunity to investigate regional infrasound detection, association, and location for a set of real sources with varying source spectra subject to anisotropic atmospheric propagation and varying noise levels (both incoherent wind noise and coherent ambient infrasound, primarily microbaroms). We illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the different denoising methods in categories such as event detection, waveform distortion, the need for manual data labelling, and computational cost. For all approaches, denoising generally performs better for signals with higher signal-to-noise ratios and with less spectral and temporal overlap between signals and noise. Microbaroms are the most globally pervasive and repetitive coherent ambient infrasound noise source, with such noise often referred to as clutter or interference. We find that denoising offers significant potential for microbarom clutter reduction. Single-channel denoising of microbaroms prior to standard array processing enhances both the quantity and bandwidth of detectable volcanic events. We find that reduction of incoherent wind noise is more challenging using the denoising methods we investigate; thus, station hardware (wind noise reduction systems) and site selection remain critical and cannot be replaced by currently available digital denoising methodologies. Overall, we find that adding single-channel denoising as a component in the processing workflow can benefit a variety of infrasound signal detection, association, and location schemes. The denoising methods can also isolate the noise itself, with utility in statistically characterizing ambient infrasound noise.

     
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