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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  2. La 0.7 Sr 0.2 Ni 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3 (LSNF), having thermochemical stability, superior ionic and electronic conductivity, and structural flexibility, was investigated as a cathode in SOECs. Exsolution of nanoparticles by reduction of LSNF at elevated temperatures can modulate the characteristics of adsorption, electron transfer, and oxidation states of catalytically active atoms, consequently improving the electrocatalytic activity. The exsolution of NiFe and La 2 NiO 4 nanoparticles to the surface of LSNF under reducing atmosphere (5% H 2 /N 2 ) was verified at various temperatures (500–800 °C) by IFFT from ETEM, TPR and in situ XRD. The exsolved nanoparticles obtained uniform size distribution (4.2–9.2 nm) and dispersion (1.31 to 0.61 × 10 4 particle per μm 2 ) depending on the reduction temperature (700–800 °C) and time (0–10 h). The reoxidation of the reduced LSNF (Red-LSNF) was verified by the XRD patterns, indicative of its redox ability, which allows for redistribution of the nanoparticles between the surface and the bulk. TPD-DRIFTS analysis demonstrated that Red-LSNF had superior H 2 O and CO 2 adsorption behavior as compared to unreduced LSNF, which we attributed to the abundance of oxygen vacancy sites and the exsolved NiFe and La 2 NiO 4 nanoparticles. After the reduction of LSNF, the decreases in the oxidation states of the catalytically active ions, Fe and Ni, were characterized on the surface by XPS as well as in the bulk by XANES. The electrochemical performance of the Red-LSNF cell was superior to that of the LSNF cell for electrolysis of H 2 O, CO 2 , and H 2 O/CO 2 . 
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  3. Abstract

    Oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) can be performed electrocatalytically by utilizing solid oxide cells, which provide a readily controlled oxygen supply through dense electrolytes. La0.7Sr0.2Ni0.2Fe0.8O3(LSNF) perovskite is an effective anode for OCM. Its surface characteristics and electrocatalytic activity can be improved by reduction and the resultant exsolution of bimetallic NiFe nanoparticles from its bulk. X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental transmission electron microscopy proved that the evolution of hetero‐phases under reducing environment resulted in bimetallic NiFe nanoparticles being formed on the surface. A 36 % improvement in C2+hydrocarbon production rate was achieved due to the reduction of LSNF with the exsolved NiFe nanoparticles. Co‐feeding of H2O enhanced selective conversion of CH4resulting in the production rate of C2+hydrocarbons being increased by 56 %. Analysis of impedance spectra and in‐situ DRIFTS under a CH4+H2O atmosphere provided an understanding for the enhancement on the electrocatalytic OCM.

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