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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. Runtime systems that automate the execution of applications on distributed cyberinfrastructures need to make scheduling deci- sions. Researchers have proposed many scheduling algorithms, but most of them are designed based on analytical models and assumptions that may not hold in practice. The literature is thus rife with algorithms that have been evaluated only within the scope of their underlying as- sumptions but whose practical effectiveness is unclear. It is thus difficult for developers to decide which algorithm to implement in their runtime systems. To obviate the above difficulty, we propose an approach by which the runtime system executes, throughout applicationmore »execution, simulations of this very execution. Each simulation is for a different algorithm in a scheduling algorithm portfolio, and the best algorithm is selected based on simulation results. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the feasibility and potential merit of this portfolio scheduling approach, even in the presence of simulation inaccuracy, when compared to the traditional one-algorithm approach. We perform this evaluation via a case study in the context of scientific workflows. Our main finding is that portfolio scheduling can outperform the best one-algorithm approach even in the presence of relatively large simulation inaccuracies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Scientific workflows are used routinely in numerous scientific domains, and Workflow Management Systems (WMSs) have been developed to orchestrate and optimize workflow executions on distributed platforms. WMSs are complex software systems that interact with complex software infrastructures. Most WMS research and development activities rely on empirical experiments conducted with full-fledged software stacks on actual hardware platforms. Such experiments, however, are limited to hardware and software infrastructures at hand and can be labor- and/or time-intensive. As a result, relying solely on real-world experiments impedes WMS research and development. An alternative is to conduct experiments in simulation. In this work we presentmore »WRENCH, a WMS simulation framework, whose objectives are (i)~accurate and scalable simulations; and (ii)~easy simulation software development. WRENCH achieves its first objective by building on the SimGrid framework. While SimGrid is recognized for the accuracy and scalability of its simulation models, it only provides low-level simulation abstractions and thus large software development efforts are required when implementing simulators of complex systems. WRENCH thus achieves its second objective by providing high-level and directly re-usable simulation abstractions on top of SimGrid. After describing and giving rationales for WRENCH's software architecture and APIs, we present a case study in which we apply WRENCH to simulate the Pegasus production WMS. We report on ease of implementation, simulation accuracy, and simulation scalability so as to determine to which extent WRENCH achieves its two above objectives. We also draw both qualitative and quantitative comparisons with a previously proposed workflow simulator.« less