skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Fibiger, Dorothy L."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract. Airborne and ground-based measurements of aerosol concentrations, chemicalcomposition, and gas-phase precursors were obtained in three valleys innorthern Utah (USA). The measurements were part of the Utah Winter FineParticulate Study (UWFPS) that took place in January–February 2017. Totalaerosol mass concentrations of PM1 were measured from a Twin Otteraircraft, with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). PM1 concentrationsranged from less than 2µgm−3 during clean periods to over100µgm−3 during the most polluted episodes, consistent withPM2.5 total mass concentrations measured concurrently at groundsites. Across the entire region, increases in total aerosol mass above∼2µgm−3 were associated with increases in theammonium nitrate mass fraction, clearly indicating that the highest aerosolmass loadings in the region were predominantly attributable to an increase inammonium nitrate. The chemical composition was regionally homogenous fortotal aerosol mass concentrations above 17.5µgm−3, with 74±5% (average±standard deviation) ammonium nitrate, 18±3%organic material, 6±3% ammonium sulfate, and 2±2%ammonium chloride. Vertical profiles of aerosol mass and volume in the regionshowed variable concentrations with height in the polluted boundary layer.Higher average mass concentrations were observed within the first few hundredmeters above ground level in all three valleys during pollution episodes. Gas-phase measurements of nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) duringthe pollution episodes revealed that in the Cache and Utah valleys, partitioningof inorganic semi-volatiles to the aerosol phase was usually limited by theamount of gas-phase nitric acid, with NH3 being in excess. The inorganicspecies were compared with the ISORROPIA thermodynamic model. Total inorganicaerosol mass concentrations were calculated for various decreases in totalnitrate and total ammonium. For pollution episodes, our simulations of a50% decrease in total nitrate lead to a 46±3% decrease in totalPM1 mass. A simulated 50% decrease in total ammonium leads to a36±17%µgm−3 decrease in total PM1 mass, over the entirearea of the study. Despite some differences among locations, ourresults showed a higher sensitivity to decreasing nitric acid concentrationsand the importance of ammonia at the lowest total nitrate conditions. In theSalt Lake Valley, both HNO3 and NH3 concentrations controlledaerosol formation.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is generated from direct urban emission sources and secondary production from the photochemical reactions of urban smog. HCHO is linked to tropospheric ozone formation, and contributes to the photochemical reactions of other components of urban smog. In this study, pollution plume intercepts during the Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign were used to investigate and characterize the formation of HCHO in relation to several anthropogenic tracers. Analysis of aircraft intercepts combined with detailed chemical box modeling downwind of several cities suggests that the most important contribution to observed HCHO was primary emission. A box model analysis of a single plume suggested that secondary sources contribute to 21 ± 10% of the observed HCHO. Ratios of HCHO/CO observed in the northeast US, from Ohio to New York, ranging from 0.2% to 0.6%, are consistent with direct emissions combined with at most modest photochemical production. Analysis of the nocturnal boundary layer and residual layer from repeated vertical profiling over urban influenced areas indicate a direct HCHO emission flux of 1.3 × 1014molecules cm−2h−1. In a case study in Atlanta, GA, nighttime HCHO exhibited a ratio to CO (0.6%–1.8%) and was anti‐correlated with O3. Observations were consistent with mixing between direct HCHO emissions in urban air masses with those influenced by more rapid HCHO photochemical production. The HCHO/CO emissions ratios determined from the measured data are 2.3–15 times greater than the NEI 2017 emissions database. The largest observed HCHO/CO was 1.7%–1.8%, located near co‐generating power stations.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    We present a comparison of instruments measuring nitrogen oxide species from an aircraft during the 2015 Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign over the northeast United States. Instrument techniques compared here include chemiluminescence (CL), thermal dissociation laser‐induced fluorescence (TD‐LIF), cavity ring‐down spectroscopy (CRDS), high‐resolution time of flight, iodide‐adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ICIMS), and aerosol mass spectrometry. Species investigated include NO2, NO, total nitrogen oxides (NOy), N2O5, ClNO2, and HNO3. Particulate‐phase nitrate is also included for comparisons of HNO3and NOy. Instruments generally agreed within reported uncertainties, with individual flights sometimes showing much better agreement than the data set taken as a whole, due to flight‐to‐flight slope changes. NO measured by CRDS and CL showed an average relative slope of 1.16 ± 0.01 across all flights, which is outside of combined uncertainties. The source of the error was not identified. For NO2measured by CRDS and TD‐LIF the average was 1.02 ± 0.00; for NOymeasured by CRDS and CL the average was 1.01 ± 0.00; and for N2O5measured by CRDS and ICIMS the average was 0.89 ± 0.01. NOybudget closure to within 20% is demonstrated. We observe nonlinearity in NO2and NOycorrelations at concentrations above ~30 ppbv that may be related to the NO discrepancy noted above. For ClNO2there were significant differences between ICIMS and TD‐LIF, potentially due in part to the temperature used for thermal dissociation. Although the fraction of particulate nitrate measured by the TD‐LIF is not well characterized, it improves comparisons to include particulate measurements.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is emitted in large quantities from coal‐burning power plants and leads to various harmful health and environmental effects. In this study, we use plume intercepts from the Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emission and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign to estimate the oxidation rates of SO2under wintertime conditions and the factors that determine SO2removal. Observations suggest that OH governs the rate SO2oxidation in the eastern United States during winter. The range of mean oxidation rates during the day from power plants were 0.22–0.71%/hr, producing SO2lifetimes of 13–43 days, if SO2consumption is assumed to occur during 10.5 hr of daylight in cloudless conditions. Though most nighttime rate measurements were zero within uncertainty, there is some evidence of nighttime removal, which suggests alternate oxidation mechanisms. The fastest nighttime observed SO2oxidation rate was 0.25±0.07%/hr, producing a combined day/night SO2lifetime of 8.5–21 days. The upper limit of the oxidation rate (the mean+1σof the fastest day and night observations) is 16.5%/day, corresponding to a lifetime of 6.1 days. The analysis also quantifies the primary emission of sulfate from power plants. The median mole percentage of SO4‐2from observed plumes was 1.7% and the mean percentage sulfate was 2.8% for intercepts within 1 hr of transit to power plants. The largest value observed from close intercepts was over 7% sulfate, and the largest extrapolated value was 18%, based on intercepts further from their source and fastest observed oxidation rate.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) plays an important role in the budget and distribution of tropospheric oxidants, halogens, and reactive nitrogen species. ClNO2is formed from the heterogeneous uptake and reaction of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on chloride‐containing aerosol, with a production yield,ϕ(ClNO2), defined as the moles of ClNO2produced relative to N2O5lost. Theϕ(ClNO2) has been increasingly incorporated into 3‐D chemical models where it is parameterized based on laboratory‐derived kinetics and currently accepted aqueous‐phase formation mechanism. This parameterization modelsϕ(ClNO2) as a function of the aerosol chloride to water molar ratio. Box model simulations of night flights during the 2015 Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER) aircraft campaign derived 3,425 individualϕ(ClNO2) values with a median of 0.138 and range of 0.003 to 1. Comparison of the box model median to those predicted by two other field‐basedϕ(ClNO2) derivation methods agreed within a factor of 1.3, within the uncertainties of each method. In contrast, the box model median was 75–84% lower than predictions from the laboratory‐based parameterization (i.e., [parameterization − box model]/parameterization). An evaluation of factors influencing this difference reveals a positive dependence ofϕ(ClNO2) on aerosol water, opposite to the currently parameterized trend. Additional factors may include aqueous‐phase competition reactions for the nitronium ion intermediate and/or direct ClNO2loss mechanisms. Further laboratory studies of ClNO2formation and the impacts of aerosol water, sulfate, organics, and ClNO2aqueous‐phase reactions are required to elucidate and quantify these processes on ambient aerosol, critical for the development of a robustϕ(ClNO2) parameterization.

    more » « less