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Creators/Authors contains: "Filali Boubrahimi, Soukaina"

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  1. Abstract

    Photospheric magnetic field parameters are frequently used to analyze and predict solar events. Observation of these parameters over time, i.e., representing solar events by multivariate time-series (MVTS) data, can determine relationships between magnetic field states in active regions and extreme solar events, e.g., solar flares. We can improve our understanding of these events by selecting the most relevant parameters that give the highest predictive performance. In this study, we propose a two-step incremental feature selection method for MVTS data using a deep-learning model based on long short-term memory (LSTM) networks. First, each MVTS feature (magnetic field parameter) is evaluated individually by a univariate sequence classifier utilizing an LSTM network. Then, the top performing features are combined to produce input for an LSTM-based multivariate sequence classifier. Finally, we tested the discrimination ability of the selected features by training downstream classifiers, e.g., Minimally Random Convolutional Kernel Transform and support vector machine. We performed our experiments using a benchmark data set for flare prediction known as Space Weather Analytics for Solar Flares. We compared our proposed method with three other baseline feature selection methods and demonstrated that our method selects more discriminatory features compared to other methods. Due to the imbalanced nature of the data, primarily caused by the rarity of minority flare classes (e.g., the X and M classes), we used the true skill statistic as the evaluation metric. Finally, we reported the set of photospheric magnetic field parameters that give the highest discrimination performance in predicting flare classes.

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  2. Abstract

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are associated with extreme solar events that can cause major damage to space- and ground-based life and infrastructure. High-intensity SEP events, particularly ∼100 MeV SEP events, can pose severe health risks for astronauts owing to radiation exposure and affect Earth’s orbiting satellites (e.g., Landsat and the International Space Station). A major challenge in the SEP event prediction task is the lack of adequate SEP data because of the rarity of these events. In this work, we aim to improve the prediction of ∼30, ∼60, and ∼100 MeV SEP events by synthetically increasing the number of SEP samples. We explore the use of a univariate and multivariate time series of proton flux data as input to machine-learning-based prediction methods, such as time series forest (TSF). Our study covers solar cycles 22, 23, and 24. Our findings show that using data augmentation methods, such as the synthetic minority oversampling technique, remarkably increases the accuracy and F1-score of the classifiers used in this research, especially for TSF, where the average accuracy increased by 20%, reaching around 90% accuracy in the ∼100 MeV SEP prediction task. We also achieved higher prediction accuracy when using the multivariate time series data of the proton flux. Finally, we build a pipeline framework for our best-performing model, TSF, and provide a comprehensive hierarchical classification of the ∼100, ∼60, and ∼30 MeV and non-SEP prediction scenarios.

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  4. Abstract

    We introduce and make openly accessible a comprehensive, multivariate time series (MVTS) dataset extracted from solar photospheric vector magnetograms in Spaceweather HMI Active Region Patch (SHARP) series. Our dataset also includes a cross-checked NOAA solar flare catalog that immediately facilitates solar flare prediction efforts. We discuss methods used for data collection, cleaning and pre-processing of the solar active region and flare data, and we further describe a novel data integration and sampling methodology. Our dataset covers 4,098 MVTS data collections from active regions occurring between May 2010 and December 2018, includes 51 flare-predictive parameters, and integrates over 10,000 flare reports. Potential directions toward expansion of the time series, either “horizontally” – by adding more prediction-specific parameters, or “vertically” – by generalizing flare into integrated solar eruption prediction, are also explained. The immediate tasks enabled by the disseminated dataset include: optimization of solar flare prediction and detailed investigation for elusive flare predictors or precursors, with both operational (research-to-operations), and basic research (operations-to-research) benefits potentially following in the future.

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