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  1. The fascinating adhesion of gecko to virtually any material has been related to surface interactions of myriads of spatula at the tips of gecko feet. Surprisingly, the molecular details of the surface chemistry of gecko adhesion are still largely unknown. Lipids have been identified within gecko adhesive pads. However, the location of the lipids, the extent to which spatula are coated with lipids, and how the lipids are structured are still open questions. Lipids can modulate adhesion properties and surface hydrophobicity and may play an important role in adhesion. We have therefore studied the molecular structure of lipids at spatula surfaces using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure imaging. We provide evidence that a nanometre-thin layer of lipids is present at the spatula surfaces of the tokay gecko ( Gekko gecko ) and that the lipids form ordered, densely packed layers. Such dense, thin lipid layers can effectively protect the spatula proteins from dehydration by forming a barrier against water evaporation. Lipids can also render surfaces hydrophobic and thereby support the gecko adhesive system by enhancement of hydrophobic–hydrophobic interactions with surfaces. 
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  3. Abstract

    Two‐dimensional coordination polymers (2DCPs) have been predicted to exhibit exotic properties such as superconductivity, topological insulating behavior, catalytic activity, and superior ion transport for energy applications; experimentally, these materials have fallen short of their expectation due to the lack of synthesis protocols that yield continuous, large crystallite domains, and highly ordered thin films with controllable physical and chemical properties. Herein, the fabrication of large‐area, highly ordered 2DCP thin films with large crystallite domains using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approaches is described. It is demonstrated that defects and the packing motifs of 2DCP thin films may be controlled by adjusting the vapor–vapor and vapor–solid interactions of the metal and organic linker precursors during the CVD fabrication process. Such control allows for the fabrication of defects‐controlled 2DCP thin films that show either semiconducting or metallic behavior. The findings provide the first demonstration of tuning the electrical properties of sub 100 nm‐thick continuous 2DCP thin films by controlling their electronic landscape through defect engineering. As such, it is determined that large‐area, highly ordered 2DCP thin films may undergo a semiconducting to metallic transition that is correlated to changes in morphology, crystalline domain sizes, crystallite orientation, defect interactions, and electronic structure.

     
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