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  1. Abstract TmVO 4 exhibits ferroquadrupolar order of the Tm 4f electronic orbitals at low temperatures, and is a model system for Ising nematicity. A magnetic field oriented along the c -axis constitutes a transverse effective field for the quadrupolar order parameter, continuously tuning the system to a quantum phase transition as the field is increased from zero. In contrast, in-plane magnetic fields couple to the order parameter only at second order, such that orienting along the primary axes of the quadrupole order results in an effective longitudinal field, whereas orienting at 45 degrees results in a second effective transverse field.more »Not only do in-plane fields engender a marked in-plane anisotropy of the critical magnetic and quadrupole fluctuations above the ferroquadrupolar ordering temperature, but in-plane transverse fields initially enhance the ferroquadrupolar order, before eventually suppressing it, an effect that we attribute to admixing of the higher crystalline electric field levels.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We present Raman-scattering results for three materials, CeB 6 , TbInO 3 , and YbRu 2 Ge 2 , to illustrate the essential aspects of crystal-field (CF) excitations and quadrupolar fluctuations of 4 f -electron systems. For CF excitations, we illustrate how the 4 f orbits are split by spin-orbit coupling and CF potential by presenting spectra for inter- and intra-multiplet excitations over a large energy range. We discuss identification of the CF ground state and establishment of low-energy CF level scheme from the symmetry and energy of measured CF excitations. In addition, we demonstrate that the CF linewidthmore »is a sensitive probe of electron correlation by virtue of self-energy effect. For quadrupolar fluctuations, we discuss both ferroquadrupolar (FQ) and antiferroquadrupolar (AFQ) cases. Long-wavelength quadrupolar fluctuations of the same symmetry as the FQ order parameter persists well above the transition temperature, from which the strength of electronic intersite quadrupolar interaction can be evaluated. The tendency towards AFQ ordering induces ferromagnetic correlation between neighboring 4 f -ion sites, leading to long-wavelength magnetic fluctuations.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022