skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Fitzsimmons, Jessica N."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. The micronutrient iron plays a major role in setting the magnitude and distribution of primary production across the global ocean. As such, an understanding of the sources, sinks, and internal cycling processes that drive the oceanic distribution of iron is key to unlocking iron's role in the global carbon cycle and climate, both today and in the geologic past. Iron isotopic analyses of seawater have emerged as a transformative tool for diagnosing iron sources to the ocean and tracing biogeochemical processes. In this review, we summarize the end-member isotope signatures of different iron source fluxes and highlight the novel insights into iron provenance gained using this tracer. We also review ways in which iron isotope fractionation might be used to understand internal oceanic cycling of iron, including speciation changes, biological uptake, and particle scavenging. We conclude with an overview of future research needed to expand the utilization of this cutting-edge tracer. 
    more » « less
  2. Reversible scavenging, the oceanographic process by which dissolved metals exchange onto and off sinking particles and are thereby transported to deeper depths, has been well established for the metal thorium for decades. Reversible scavenging both deepens the elemental distribution of adsorptive elements and shortens their oceanic residence times in the ocean compared to nonadsorptive metals, and scavenging ultimately removes elements from the ocean via sedimentation. Thus, it is important to understand which metals undergo reversible scavenging and under what conditions. Recently, reversible scavenging has been invoked in global biogeochemical models of a range of metals including lead, iron, copper, and zinc to fit modeled data to observations of oceanic dissolved metal distributions. Nonetheless, the effects of reversible scavenging remain difficult to visualize in ocean sections of dissolved metals and to distinguish from other processes such as biological regeneration. Here, we show that particle-rich “veils” descending from high-productivity zones in the equatorial and North Pacific provide idealized illustrations of reversible scavenging of dissolved lead (Pb). A meridional section of dissolved Pb isotope ratios across the central Pacific shows that where particle concentrations are sufficiently high, such as within particle veils, vertical transport of anthropogenic surface–dissolved Pb isotope ratios toward the deep ocean is manifested as columnar isotope anomalies. Modeling of this effect shows that reversible scavenging within particle-rich waters allows anthropogenic Pb isotope ratios from the surface to penetrate ancient deep waters on timescales sufficiently rapid to overcome horizontal mixing of deep water Pb isotope ratios along abyssal isopycnals. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 6, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Intense rainfall from tropical cyclones has the potential to induce coastal acidification, which will become more common and severe as climate change continues. We collected carbonate chemistry samples from Galveston Bay, Texas before and after Hurricane Harvey in 2017 and 2018. Here, we show ecosystem level acidification and calcium carbonate undersaturation in Galveston Bay following the storm. This acidification event, driven by extreme rainfall from Harvey, persisted for over 3 weeks because of prolonged flood mitigation reservoir releases that continued for over a month after the storm. In addition, the large volume of stormwater led to high oyster mortality rates in Galveston Bay and acidification may have impeded recovery of these vital reefs. It is also likely that undersaturation has occurred outside of our study, unrecorded, following other high-rainfall storms. The projected increase in tropical cyclone rainfall under climate change may thus represent a significant threat to coastal calcifying ecosystems.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Despite the Pacific being the location of the earliest seawater Cd studies, the processes which control Cd distributions in this region remain incompletely understood, largely due to the sparsity of data. Here, we present dissolved Cd and δ114Cd data from the US GEOTRACES GP15 meridional transect along 152°W from the Alaskan margin to the equatorial Pacific. Our examination of this region's surface ocean Cd isotope systematics is consistent with previous observations, showing a stark disparity between northern Cd‐rich high‐nutrient low‐chlorophyll waters and Cd‐depleted waters of the subtropical and equatorial Pacific. Away from the margin, an open system model ably describes data in Cd‐depleted surface waters, but atmospheric inputs of isotopically light Cd likely play an important role in setting surface Cd isotope ratios (δ114Cd) at the lowest Cd concentrations. Below the surface, Southern Ocean processes and water mass mixing are the dominant control on Pacific Cd and δ114Cd distributions. Cd‐depleted Antarctic Intermediate Water has a far‐reaching effect on North Pacific intermediate waters as far as 47°N, contrasting with northern‐sourced Cd signatures in North Pacific Intermediate Water. Finally, we show that the previously identified negative Cd* signal at depth in the North Pacific is associated with the PO4maximum and is thus a consequence of an integrated regeneration signal of Cd and PO4at a slightly lower Cd:P ratio than the deep ocean ratio (0.35 mmol mol−1), rather than being related to in situ removal processes in low‐oxygen waters.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Recent studies, including many from the GEOTRACES program, have expanded our knowledge of trace metals in the Arctic Ocean, an isolated ocean dominated by continental shelf and riverine inputs. Here, we report a unique, pan‐Arctic linear relationship between dissolved copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) present north of 60°N that is absent in other oceans. The correlation is driven primarily by high Cu and Ni concentrations in the low salinity, river‐influenced surface Arctic and low, homogeneous concentrations in Arctic deep waters, opposing their typical global distributions. Rivers are a major source of both metals, which is most evident within the central Arctic's Transpolar Drift. Local decoupling of the linear Cu‐Ni relationship along the Chukchi Shelf and within the Canada Basin upper halocline reveals that Ni is additionally modified by biological cycling and shelf sediment processes, while Cu is mostly sourced from riverine inputs and influenced by mixing. This observation highlights differences in their chemistries: Cu is more prone to complexation with organic ligands, stabilizing its riverine source fluxes into the Arctic, while Ni is more labile and is dominated by biological processes. Within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, an important source of Arctic water to the Atlantic Ocean, contributions of Cu and Ni from meteoric waters and the halocline are attenuated during transit to the Atlantic. Additionally, Cu and Ni in deep waters diminish with age due to isolation from surface sources, with higher concentrations in the younger Eastern Arctic basins and lower concentrations in the older Western Arctic basins.

    more » « less
  6. Abstract

    This study traces dissolved organic matter (DOM) in different water masses of the Arctic Ocean and its effect on the distributions of trace elements (TEs; Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cd) using fluorescent properties of DOM and the terrigenous biomarker lignin. The Nansen, Amundsen, and Makarov Basins were characterized by the influence of Atlantic water and the fluvial discharge of the Siberian Rivers with high concentrations of terrigenous DOM (tDOM). The Canada Basin and the Chukchi Sea were characterized by Pacific water, modified through contact with productive shelf sediments with elevated levels of marine DOM. Within the surface layer of the Beaufort Gyre, meteoric water (river water and precipitation) was characterized by low concentrations of lignin and tDOM fluorescence proxies as DOM is removed during freezing. High‐resolution in situ fluorescence profiles revealed that DOM distribution closely followed isopycnals, indicating the strong influence of sea‐ice formation and melt, which was also reflected in strong correlations between DOM fluorescence and brine contributions. The relationship of DOM and hydrography to TEs showed that terrigenous and marine DOM were likely carriers of dissolved Fe, Ni, Cu from the Eurasian shelves into the central Arctic Ocean. Chukchi shelf sediments were important sources of dCd, dZn, and dNi, as well as marine ligands that bind and carry these TEs offshore within the upper halocline in the Canada Basin. Our data suggest that tDOM components represent stronger ligands relative to marine DOM components, potentially facilitating the long‐range transport of TE to the North Atlantic.

    more » « less
  7. Abstract

    Atmospheric deposition represents a major input for micronutrient trace elements (TEs) to the surface ocean and is often quantified indirectly through measurements of aerosol TE concentrations. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) dominates aerosol mass concentration over much of the global ocean, but few studies have assessed its contribution to aerosol TE loading, which could result in overestimates of “new” TE inputs. Low‐mineral aerosol concentrations measured during the U.S. GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (GP15; 152°W, 56°N to 20°S), along with concurrent towfish sampling of surface seawater, provided an opportunity to investigate this aspect of TE biogeochemical cycling. Central Pacific Ocean surface seawater Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations were combined with aerosol Na data to calculate a “recycled” SSA contribution to aerosol TE loading. Only vanadium was calculated to have a SSA contribution averaging >1% along the transect (mean of 1.5%). We derive scaling factors from previous studies on TE enrichments in the sea surface microlayer and in freshly produced SSA to assess the broader potential for SSA contributions to aerosol TE loading. Maximum applied scaling factors suggest that SSA could contribute significantly to the aerosol loading of some elements (notably V, Cu, and Pb), while for others (e.g., Fe and Al), SSA contributions largely remained <1%. Our study highlights that a lack of focused measurements of TEs in SSA limits our ability to quantify this component of marine aerosol loading and the associated potential for overestimating new TE inputs from atmospheric deposition.

    more » « less