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  1. Abstract

    The unknown cause of the correlation between Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) Hubble residuals and their host-galaxy masses (the “mass step”) may bias cosmological parameter measurements. To better understand the mass step, we develop a SALT3 light-curve model for SN cosmology that uses the host-galaxy masses of 296 low-redshift SNe Ia to derive a spectral energy distribution–host-galaxy mass relationship. The resulting model has larger CaiiH and K, Caiinear-infrared triplet, and Siiiequivalent widths for SNe in low-mass host galaxies at 2.2–2.7σsignificance; this indicates higher explosion energies per unit mass in low-mass-hosted SNe. The model has phase-dependent changes in SN Ia colors as a function of host mass, indicating intrinsic differences in mean broadband light curves. Although the model provides a better fit to the SN data overall, it does not substantially reduce data–model residuals for a typical light curve in our sample nor does it significantly reduce Hubble residual dispersion. This is because we find that previous SALT models parameterized most host-galaxy dependencies with their first principal component, although they failed to model some significant spectral variations. Our new model is luminosity and cosmology independent, and applying it to data reduces the mass step by 0.021 ± 0.002 mag (uncertainty accounts for correlated data sets); these results indicate that ∼35% of the mass step can be attributed to luminosity-independent effects. This SALT model version could be trained using alternative host-galaxy properties and at different redshifts, and therefore will be a tool for understanding redshift-dependent correlations between SNe Ia and their host properties as well as their impact on cosmological parameter measurements.

     
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  2. Abstract

    We present pre- and postexplosion observations of the Type II-P supernova (SN II-P) 2019mhm located in NGC 6753. Based on optical spectroscopy and photometry, we show that SN 2019mhm exhibits broad lines of hydrogen with a velocity of −8500 ± 200 km s−1and a 111 ± 2 day extended plateau in its luminosity, typical of the Type II-P subclass. We also fit its late-time bolometric light curve and infer that it initially produced a56Ni mass of 1.3 × 10−2± 5.5 × 10−4M. Using imaging from the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the Hubble Space Telescope obtained 19 yr before explosion, we aligned to a postexplosion Wide Field Camera 3 image and demonstrate that there is no detected counterpart to the SN to a limit of >24.53 mag in F814W, corresponding to an absolute magnitude limit ofMF814W< −7.7 mag. Comparing to massive-star evolutionary tracks, we determine that the progenitor star had a maximum zero-age main-sequence mass <17.5M, consistent with other SN II-P progenitor stars. SN 2019mhm can be added to the growing population of SNe II-P with both direct constraints on the brightness of their progenitor stars and well-observed SN properties.

     
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  3. Abstract

    The modern study of astrophysical transients has been transformed by an exponentially growing volume of data. Within the last decade, the transient discovery rate has increased by a factor of ∼20, with associated survey data, archival data, and metadata also increasing with the number of discoveries. To manage the data at this increased rate, we require new tools. Here we presentYSE-PZ, a transient survey management platform that ingests multiple live streams of transient discovery alerts, identifies the host galaxies of those transients, downloads coincident archival data, and retrieves photometry and spectra from ongoing surveys.YSE-PZalso presents a user with a range of tools to make and support timely and informed transient follow-up decisions. Those subsequent observations enhance transient science and can reveal physics only accessible with rapid follow-up observations. Rather than automating out human interaction,YSE-PZfocuses on accelerating and enhancing human decision making, a role we describe as empowering the human-in-the-loop. Finally,YSE-PZis built to be flexibly used and deployed;YSE-PZcan support multiple, simultaneous, and independent transient collaborations through group-level data permissions, allowing a user to view the data associated with the union of all groups in which they are a member.YSE-PZcan be used as a local instance installed via Docker or deployed as a service hosted in the cloud. We provideYSE-PZas an open-source tool for the community.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    We present the Keck Infrared Transient Survey, a NASA Key Strategic Mission Support program to obtain near-infrared (NIR) spectra of astrophysical transients of all types, and its first data release, consisting of 105 NIR spectra of 50 transients. Such a data set is essential as we enter a new era of IR astronomy with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the upcoming Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (Roman). NIR spectral templates will be essential to search JWST images for stellar explosions of the first stars and to plan an effective Roman SN Ia cosmology survey, both key science objectives for mission success. Between 2022 February and 2023 July, we systematically obtained 274 NIR spectra of 146 astronomical transients, representing a significant increase in the number of available NIR spectra in the literature. Here, we describe the first release of data from the 2022A semester. We systematically observed three samples: a flux-limited sample that includes all transients <17 mag in a red optical band (usually ZTFror ATLASobands); a volume-limited sample including all transients within redshiftz< 0.01 (D≈ 50 Mpc); and an SN Ia sample targeting objects at phases and light-curve parameters that had scant existing NIR data in the literature. The flux-limited sample is 39% complete (60% excluding SNe Ia), while the volume-limited sample is 54% complete and is 79% complete toz= 0.005. Transient classes observed include common Type Ia and core-collapse supernovae, tidal disruption events, luminous red novae, and the newly categorized hydrogen-free/helium-poor interacting Type Icn supernovae. We describe our observing procedures and data reduction usingPypeIt, which requires minimal human interaction to ensure reproducibility.

     
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  5. Abstract

    We present UV and/or optical observations and models of SN 2023ixf, a type II supernova (SN) located in Messier 101 at 6.9 Mpc. Early time (flash) spectroscopy of SN 2023ixf, obtained primarily at Lick Observatory, reveals emission lines of Hi, Hei/ii, Civ, and Niii/iv/vwith a narrow core and broad, symmetric wings arising from the photoionization of dense, close-in circumstellar material (CSM) located around the progenitor star prior to shock breakout. These electron-scattering broadened line profiles persist for ∼8 days with respect to first light, at which time Doppler broadened the features from the fastest SN ejecta form, suggesting a reduction in CSM density atr≳ 1015cm. The early time light curve of SN 2023ixf shows peak absolute magnitudes (e.g.,Mu= −18.6 mag,Mg= −18.4 mag) that are ≳2 mag brighter than typical type II SNe, this photometric boost also being consistent with the shock power supplied from CSM interaction. Comparison of SN 2023ixf to a grid of light-curve and multiepoch spectral models from the non-LTE radiative transfer codeCMFGENand the radiation-hydrodynamics codeHERACLESsuggests dense, solar-metallicity CSM confined tor= (0.5–1) × 1015cm, and a progenitor mass-loss rate ofṀ=102Myr−1. For the assumed progenitor wind velocity ofvw= 50 km s−1, this corresponds to enhanced mass loss (i.e.,superwindphase) during the last ∼3–6 yr before explosion.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  6. Abstract We present extensive optical photometry of the afterglow of GRB 221009A. Our data cover 0.9–59.9 days from the time of Swift and Fermi gamma-ray burst (GRB) detections. Photometry in rizy -band filters was collected primarily with Pan-STARRS and supplemented by multiple 1–4 m imaging facilities. We analyzed the Swift X-ray data of the afterglow and found a single decline rate power law f ( t ) ∝ t −1.556±0.002 best describes the light curve. In addition to the high foreground Milky Way dust extinction along this line of sight, the data favor additional extinction to consistently model the optical to X-ray flux with optically thin synchrotron emission. We fit the X-ray-derived power law to the optical light curve and find good agreement with the measured data up to 5−6 days. Thereafter we find a flux excess in the riy bands that peaks in the observer frame at ∼20 days. This excess shares similar light-curve profiles to the Type Ic broad-lined supernovae SN 2016jca and SN 2017iuk once corrected for the GRB redshift of z = 0.151 and arbitrarily scaled. This may be representative of an SN emerging from the declining afterglow. We measure rest-frame absolute peak AB magnitudes of M g = −19.8 ± 0.6 and M r = − 19.4 ± 0.3 and M z = −20.1 ± 0.3. If this is an SN component, then Bayesian modeling of the excess flux would imply explosion parameters of M ej = 7.1 − 1.7 + 2.4 M ⊙ , M Ni = 1.0 − 0.4 + 0.6 M ⊙ , and v ej = 33,900 − 5700 + 5900 km s −1 , for the ejecta mass, nickel mass, and ejecta velocity respectively, inferring an explosion energy of E kin ≃ 2.6–9.0 × 10 52 erg. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  7. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We present X-ray and radio observations of what may be the closest Type Iax supernova (SN) to date, SN 2014dt (d = 12.3–19.3 Mpc), and provide tight constraints on the radio and X-ray emission. We infer a specific radio luminosity $L_R\lt (1.0\!-\!2.4)\times 10^{25}\, \rm {erg\, s^{-1}\, Hz^{-1}}$ at a frequency of 7.5 GHz and a X-ray luminosity $L_X\lt 1.4\times 10^{38}\, \rm {erg\, s^{-1}}$ (0.3–10 keV) at ∼38–48 d post-explosion. We interpret these limits in the context of Inverse Compton (IC) emission and synchrotron emission from a population of electrons accelerated at the forward shock of the explosion in a power-law distribution $N_e(\gamma _e)\propto \gamma _e^{-p}$ with p = 3. Our analysis constrains the progenitor system mass-loss rate to be $\dot{M}\lt 5.0 \times 10^{-6} \rm {M_{\odot }\, yr^{-1}}$ at distances $r\lesssim 10^{16}\, \rm {cm}$ for an assumed wind velocity $v_w=100\, \rm {km\, s^{-1}}$, and a fraction of post-shock energy into magnetic fields and relativistic electrons of ϵB = 0.01 and ϵe = 0.1, respectively. This result rules out some of the parameter space of symbiotic giant star companions, and it is consistent with the low mass-loss rates expected from He-star companions. Our calculations also show that the improved sensitivity of the next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) is needed to probe the very low-density media characteristic of He stars that are the leading model for binary stellar companions of white dwarfs giving origin to Type Iax SNe. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
  9. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT The detection of the optical transient AT2017gfo proved that binary neutron star mergers are progenitors of kilonovae (KNe). Using a combination of numerical-relativity and radiative-transfer simulations, the community has developed sophisticated models for these transients for a wide portion of the expected parameter space. Using these simulations and surrogate models made from them, it has been possible to perform Bayesian inference of the observed signals to infer properties of the ejected matter. It has been pointed out that combining inclination constraints derived from the KN with gravitational-wave measurements increases the accuracy with which binary parameters can be estimated, in particular breaking the distance-inclination degeneracy from gravitational wave inference. To avoid bias from the unknown ejecta geometry, constraints on the inclination angle for AT2017gfo should be insensitive to the employed models. In this work, we compare different assumptions about the ejecta and radiative reprocesses used by the community and we investigate their impact on the parameter inference. While most inferred parameters agree, we find disagreement between posteriors for the inclination angle for different geometries that have been used in the current literature. According to our study, the inclusion of reprocessing of the photons between different ejecta types improves the modeling fits to AT2017gfo and, in some cases, affects the inferred constraints. Our study motivates the inclusion of large ∼ 1-mag uncertainties in the KN models employed for Bayesian analysis to capture yet unknown systematics, especially when inferring inclination angles, although smaller uncertainties seem appropriate to capture model systematics for other intrinsic parameters. We can use this method to impose soft constraints on the ejecta geometry of the KN AT2017gfo. 
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