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  1. Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. The most common lung cancer subtype is non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) comprising about 85% of all cases. NSCLC can be further divided into three subtypes: adenocarcinoma (LUAD), squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), and large cell lung carcinoma. Specific genetic mutations and epigenetic aberrations play an important role in the developmental transition to a specific tumor subtype. The elucidation of normal lung versus lung tumor gene expression patterns and regulatory targets yields biomarker systems that discriminate lung phenotypes (i.e., biomarkers) and provide a foundation for the discovery of normal and aberrant gene regulatory mechanisms. Results We built condition-specific gene co-expression networks (csGCNs) for normal lung, LUAD, and LUSC conditions. Then, we integrated normal lung tissue-specific gene regulatory networks (tsGRNs) to elucidate control-target biomarker systems for normal and cancerous lung tissue. We characterized co-expressed gene edges, possibly under common regulatory control, for relevance in lung cancer. Conclusions Our approach demonstrates the ability to elucidate csGCN:tsGRN merged biomarker systems based on gene expression correlation and regulation. The biomarker systems we describe can be used to classify and further describe lung specimens. Our approach is generalizable and canmore »be used to discover and interpret complex gene expression patterns for any condition or species.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  4. López, Ana Benítez (Ed.)
  5. Storch, David (Ed.)

    A significant fraction of isolated white dwarfs host magnetic fields in excess of a MegaGauss. Observations suggest that these fields originate in interacting binary systems where the companion is destroyed thus leaving a singular, highly magnetized white dwarf. In post-main-sequence evolution, radial expansion of the parent star may cause orbiting companions to become engulfed. During the common envelope phase, as the orbital separation rapidly decreases, low-mass companions will tidally disrupt as they approach the giant’s core. We hydrodynamically simulate the tidal disruption of planets and brown dwarfs, and the subsequent accretion disc formation, in the interior of an asymptotic giant branch star. Compared to previous steady-state simulations, the resultant discs form with approximately the same mass fraction as estimated but have not yet reached steady state and are morphologically more extended in height and radius. The long-term evolution of the disc and the magnetic fields generated therein require future study.

  7. Abstract

    As human and automated sensor networks collect increasingly massive volumes of animal observations, new opportunities have arisen to use these data to infer or track species movements. Sources of broad scale occurrence datasets include crowdsourced databases, such as eBird and iNaturalist, weather surveillance radars, and passive automated sensors including acoustic monitoring units and camera trap networks. Such data resources represent static observations, typically at the species level, at a given location. Nonetheless, by combining multiple observations across many locations and times it is possible to infer spatially continuous population-level movements. Population-level movement characterizes the aggregated movement of individuals comprising a population, such as range contractions, expansions, climate tracking, or migration, that can result from physical, behavioral, or demographic processes. A desire to model population movements from such forms of occurrence data has led to an evolving field that has created new analytical and statistical approaches that can account for spatial and temporal sampling bias in the observations. The insights generated from the growth of population-level movement research can complement the insights from focal tracking studies, and elucidate mechanisms driving changes in population distributions at potentially larger spatial and temporal scales. This review will summarize current broad-scale occurrence datasets, discussmore »the latest approaches for utilizing them in population-level movement analyses, and highlight studies where such analyses have provided ecological insights. We outline the conceptual approaches and common methodological steps to infer movements from spatially distributed occurrence data that currently exist for terrestrial animals, though similar approaches may be applicable to plants, freshwater, or marine organisms.

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