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  1. Recent Internet-of-Things (IoT) networks span across a multitude of stationary and robotic devices, namely unmanned ground vehicles, surface vessels, and aerial drones, to carry out mission-critical services such as search and rescue operations, wildfire monitoring, and flood/hurricane impact assessment. Achieving communication synchrony, reliability, and minimal communication jitter among these devices is a key challenge both at the simulation and system levels of implementation due to the underpinning differences between a physics-based robot operating system (ROS) simulator that is time-based and a network-based wireless simulator that is event-based, in addition to the complex dynamics of mobile and heterogeneous IoT devices deployed in a real environment. Nevertheless, synchronization between physics (robotics) and network simulators is one of the most difficult issues to address in simulating a heterogeneous multi-robot system before transitioning it into practice. The existing TCP/IP communication protocol-based synchronizing middleware mostly relied on Robot Operating System 1 (ROS1), which expends a significant portion of communication bandwidth and time due to its master-based architecture. To address these issues, we design a novel synchronizing middleware between robotics and traditional wireless network simulators, relying on the newly released real-time ROS2 architecture with a master-less packet discovery mechanism. Additionally, we propose a ground and aerial agents’ velocity-aware customized QoS policy for Data Distribution Service (DDS) to minimize the packet loss and transmission latency between a diverse set of robotic agents, and we offer the theoretical guarantee of our proposed QoS policy. We performed extensive network performance evaluations both at the simulation and system levels in terms of packet loss probability and average latency with line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and TCP/UDP communication protocols over our proposed ROS2-based synchronization middleware. Moreover, for a comparative study, we presented a detailed ablation study replacing NS-3 with a real-time wireless network simulator, EMANE, and masterless ROS2 with master-based ROS1. Our proposed middleware attests to the promise of building a largescale IoT infrastructure with a diverse set of stationary and robotic devices that achieve low-latency communications (12% and 11% reduction in simulation and reality, respectively) while satisfying the reliability (10% and 15% packet loss reduction in simulation and reality, respectively) and high-fidelity requirements of mission-critical applications. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2024
  2. Garoufallou, E. ; Ovalle-Perandones, MA. ; Vlachidis, A (Ed.)
  3. We conduct a global comparison of the consumption of energy by human populations throughout the Holocene and statistically quantify coincident changes in the consumption of energy over space and time—an ecological phenomenon known as synchrony. When populations synchronize, adverse changes in ecosystems and social systems may cascade from society to society. Thus, to develop policies that favor the sustained use of resources, we must understand the processes that cause the synchrony of human populations. To date, it is not clear whether human societies display long-term synchrony or, if they do, the poten- tial causes. Our analysis begins to fill this knowledge gap by quantifying the long-term synchrony of human societies, and we hypothesize that the synchrony of human populations results from (i) the creation of social ties that couple populations over smaller scales and (ii) much larger scale, globally convergent tra- jectories of cultural evolution toward more energy-consuming political economies with higher carrying capacities. Our results suggest that the process of globalization is a natural consequence of evolutionary trajectories that increase the carrying capacities of human societies. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
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