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  1. Abstract

    The porous transport layer (PTL)/catalyst layer (CL) interface plays a crucial role in the achievement of high performance and efficiency in polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzers (PEMWEs). This study investigated the effects of the PTL/CL interface on the degradation of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) during a 4000 hour test, comparing the MEAs assembled with uncoated and Ir-coated Ti PTLs. Our results show that compared to an uncoated PTL/CL interface, an optimized interface formed when using a platinum group metal (PGM) coating, i.e, an iridium layer at the PTL/CL interface, and reduced the degradation of the MEA. The agglomeration and formation of voids and cracks could be found for both MEAs after the long-term test, but the incorporation of an Ir coating on the PTL did not affect the morphology change or oxidation of IrOx in the catalyst layer. In addition, our studies suggest that the ionomer loss and restructuring of the anodic MEA can also be reduced by Ir coating of the PTL/CL interface. Optimization of the PTL/CL interface improves the performance and durability of a PEMWE.


    Double detonations of sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs are a promising explosion scenario for Type Ia supernovae, whereby a detonation in a surface helium shell triggers a secondary detonation in a carbon-oxygen core. Recent work has shown that low-mass helium shell models reproduce observations of normal SNe Ia. We present 3D radiative transfer simulations for a suite of 3D simulations of the double detonation explosion scenario for a range of shell and core masses. We find light curves broadly able to reproduce the faint end of the width–luminosity relation shown by SNe Ia, however, we find that all of our models show extremely red colours, not observed in normal SNe Ia. This includes our lowest mass helium shell model. We find clear Ti ii absorption features in the model spectra, which would lead to classification as peculiar SNe Ia, as well as line blanketing in some lines of sight by singly ionized Cr and Fe-peak elements. Our radiative transfer simulations show that these explosion models remain promising to explain peculiar SNe Ia. Future full non-LTE simulations may improve the agreement of these explosion models with observations of normal SNe Ia.

  3. Liu, W. ; Wang, Y. ; Guo, B. ; Tang, X. ; Zeng, S. (Ed.)
    Various nucleosynthesis studies have pointed out that the rapid neutron capture r-process elements in very metal-poor (VMP) halo stars might have different origins. It has been known that an r-process can either be obtained in neutron-rich low Ye conditions or in high entropy environments [see e.g. 1–5], an overview over many investigations has appeared recently [6]. In the present article we analyze with statistical methods the observational abundance patterns from trans-Fe elements up to the actinides and come to the conclusion that four to five categories of astrophysical events must have contributed. These include the ejection of Fe and trans-Fe elements Sr, Y, Zr (continuing possibly beyond to slightly higher mass numbers) in category 0 events (hereafter "C0"), Fe and weak r-process contributions (including Eu in moderate to slightly larger but varying amounts) in CI and CII events, strong r-process abundance patterns with no or negligible (in comparison to solar) Fe production in CIIIa and CIIIb events, where category CIIIb shows a tendency for an actinide boost behavior. When comparing these categories with presently existing nucleosynthesis predictions, we suggest to identify them (despite remaining uncertainties) with regular core-collapse supernovae, quark deconfinement supernovae, magneto-rotational supernovae, neutron star mergers, and outflows frommore »black hole accretion tori.« less
  4. Sub-Chandrasekhar mass carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with a surface helium shell have been proposed as progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). If true, the resulting thermonuclear explosions should be able to account for at least some of the range of SNe Ia observables. To study this, we conducted a parameter study based on three-dimensional simulations of double detonations in carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with a helium shell, assuming different core and shell masses. An admixture of carbon to the shell and solar metallicity are included in the models. The hydrodynamic simulations were carried out using the A REPO code. This allowed us to follow the helium shell detonation with high numerical resolution, and this improves the reliability of predicted nucleosynthetic shell detonation yields. The addition of carbon to the shell leads to a lower production of 56 Ni, while including solar metallicity increases the production of intermediate mass elements. The production of higher mass elements is further shifted to stable isotopes at solar metallicity. Moreover, we find different core detonation ignition mechanisms depending on the core and shell mass configuration. This has an influence on the ejecta structure. We present the bolometric light curves predicted from our explosion simulations using themore »Monte Carlo radiative transfer code A RTIS and make comparisons with bolometric SNe Ia data. The bolometric light curves of our models show a range of brightnesses, which is able to account for subluminous to normal brightness SNe Ia. We show the model bolometric width-luminosity relation compared to data for a range of model viewing angles. We find that, on average, our brighter models lie within the observed data. The ejecta asymmetries produce a wide distribution of observables, which might account for outliers in the data. However, the models overestimate the extent of this compared to data. We also find that the bolometric decline rate over 40 days, Δm 40 (bol), appears systematically faster than data.« less
  5. Abstract

    Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KH) waves have been broadly shown to affect the growth of hydrometeors within a region of falling precipitation, but formation and growth from KH waves at cloud top needs further attention. Here, we present detailed observations of cloud-top KH waves that produced a snow plume that extended to the surface. Airborne transects of cloud radar aligned with range height indicator scans from ground-based precipitation radar track the progression and intensity of the KH wave kinetics and precipitation. In situ cloud probes and surface disdrometer measurements are used to quantify the impact of the snow plume on the composition of an underlying supercooled liquid water (SLW) cloud and the snowfall observed at the surface. KH wavelengths of 1.5 km consisted of ∼750-m-wide up- and downdrafts. A distinct fluctus region appeared as a wave-breaking cloud top where the fastest updraft was observed to exceed 5 m s−1. Relatively weaker updrafts of 0.5–1.5 m s−1beneath the fluctus and partially overlapping the dendritic growth zone were associated with steep gradients in reflectivity of −5 to 20 dBZein as little as 500-m depths due to rapid growth of pristine planar ice crystals. The falling snow removed ∼80% of the SLW content frommore »the underlying cloud and led to a twofold increase in surface liquid equivalent snowfall rate from 0.6 to 1.3 mm h−1. This paper presents the first known study of cloud-top KH waves producing snowfall with observations of increased snowfall rates at the surface.

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  6. The pathways air travels from the Pacific Ocean to the Intermountain West of the United States are important for understanding how air characteristics change and how this translates to the amount and distribution of snowfall. Recent studies have identified the most common moisture pathways in the Intermountain West, especially for heavy precipitation events. However, the role of moisture pathways on snowfall amount and distribution in specific regions remains unclear. Here, we investigate 24 precipitation events in the Payette Mountains of Idaho during January–March 2017 to understand how local atmospheric conditions are tied to three moisture pathways and how it impacts snowfall amount and distribution. During one pathway, southwesterly, moist, tropical air is directed into the Central Valley of California where the air is blocked by the Sierra Nevada, redirected northward and over lower terrain north of Lake Tahoe into the Snake River Plain of Idaho. Other pathways consist of unblocked flows that approach the coast of California from the southwest and then override the northern Sierra Nevada and southern Cascades, and zonal flows approaching the coast of Oregon overriding the Oregon Cascades. Air masses in the Payette Mountains of Idaho associated with Sierra-blocked flow were observed to be warmer, moister,more »and windier compared to the other moisture pathways. During Sierra-blocked flow, higher snowfall rates, in terms of mean reflectivity, were observed more uniformly distributed throughout the region compared to the other flows, which observed lower snowfall rates that were predominantly collocated with areas of higher terrain. Of the total estimated snowfall captured in this study, 67% was observed during Sierra-blocked flow.

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