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    We present a method that derives the dust temperatures and infrared (IR) luminosities of high-redshift galaxies assuming radiation equilibrium in a simple dust and stellar distribution geometry. Using public data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) archive, we studied dust temperatures assuming a clumpy interstellar medium (ISM) model for high-redshift galaxies, then tested the consistency of our results with those obtained using other methods. We find that a dust distribution model assuming a clumpiness of ${\rm log}\, \xi _{\rm clp}=-1.02\pm 0.41$ may accurately represent the ISM of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. By assuming a value of ξclp, our method enables the derivation of dust temperatures and IR luminosities of high-redshift galaxies from dust continuum fluxes and emission sizes obtained from single-band ALMA observations. To demonstrate the method proposed herein, we determined the dust temperature ($T_{\rm d}=95^{+13}_{-17}\, \rm {K}$) of a z ∼ 8.3 star-forming galaxy, MACS0416-Y1. Because the method only requires a single-band dust observation to derive a dust temperature, it is more easily accessible than multiband observations or high-redshift emission line searches and can be applied to large samples of galaxies in future studies using high-resolution interferometers such as ALMA.

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    We investigate the degree of dust obscured star formation in 49 massive (log10(M⋆/M⊙) > 9) Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z = 6.5–8 observed as part of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Reionization Era Bright Emission Line Survey (REBELS) large program. By creating deep stacks of the photometric data and the REBELS ALMA measurements we determine the average rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), optical, and far-infrared (FIR) properties which reveal a significant fraction (fobs = 0.4–0.7) of obscured star formation, consistent with previous studies. From measurements of the rest-frame UV slope, we find that the brightest LBGs at these redshifts show bluer (β ≃ −2.2) colours than expected from an extrapolation of the colour–magnitude relation found at fainter magnitudes. Assuming a modified blackbody spectral energy distribution (SED) in the FIR (with dust temperature of $T_{\rm d} = 46\, {\rm K}$ and βd = 2.0), we find that the REBELS sources are in agreement with the local ‘Calzetti-like’ starburst Infrared-excess (IRX)–β relation. By re-analysing the data available for 108 galaxies at z ≃ 4–6 from the ALMA Large Program to Investigate C+ at Early Times (ALPINE) using a consistent methodology and assumed FIR SED, we show that from z ≃ 4–8, massive galaxies selected in the rest-frame UV have no appreciable evolution in their derived IRX–β relation. When comparing the IRX–M⋆ relation derived from the combined ALPINE and REBELS sample to relations established at z < 4, we find a deficit in the IRX, indicating that at z > 4 the proportion of obscured star formation is lower by a factor of ≳ 3 at a given a M⋆. Our IRX–β results are in good agreement with the high-redshift predictions of simulations and semi-analytic models for z ≃ 7 galaxies with similar stellar masses and star formation rates.

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    Gaseous outflows are key phenomena in the evolution of galaxies, as they affect star formation (either positively or negatively), eject gas from the core or disc, and directly cause mixing of pristine and processed material. Active outflows may be detected through searches for broad spectral line emission or high-velocity gas, but it is also possible to determine the presence of past outflows by searching for extended reservoirs of chemically enriched molecular gas in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) around galaxies. In this work, we examine the CO(3−2) emission of a set of seven z ∼ 2.0–2.5 active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxies, as observed with ALMA. Through a 3D stacking analysis, we find evidence for extended CO emission of radius r ∼ 13 kpc. We extend this analysis to the HST/ACS i-band images of the sample galaxies, finding a complex small-scale (r < 10 kpc) morphology but no robust evidence for extended emission. In addition, the dust emission (traced by rest-frame FIR emission) shows no evidence for significant spatial extension. This indicates that the diffuse CO emission revealed by ALMA is morphologically distinct from the stellar component, and thus traces an extended reservoir of enriched gas. The presence of a diffuse, enriched molecular reservoir around this sample of AGN host galaxies at cosmic noon hints at a history of AGN-driven outflows that likely had strong effects on the star formation history of these objects.

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    We present 10 main-sequence ALPINE galaxies (log (M/M⊙) = 9.2−11.1 and ${\rm SFR}=23-190\, {\rm M_{\odot }\, yr^{-1}}$) at z ∼ 4.5 with optical [O ii] measurements from Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy and Subaru/MOIRCS narrow-band imaging. This is the largest such multiwavelength sample at these redshifts, combining various measurements in the ultraviolet, optical, and far-infrared including [C ii]158 $\mu$m line emission and dust continuum from ALMA and H α emission from Spitzer photometry. For the first time, this unique sample allows us to analyse the relation between [O ii] and total star-formation rate (SFR) and the interstellar medium (ISM) properties via [O ii]/[C ii] and [O ii]/H α luminosity ratios at z ∼ 4.5. The [O ii]−SFR relation at z ∼ 4.5 cannot be described using standard local descriptions, but is consistent with a metal-dependent relation assuming metallicities around $50{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ solar. To explain the measured dust-corrected luminosity ratios of $\log (L_{\rm [OII]}/L_{\rm [CII]}) \sim 0.98^{+0.21}_{-0.22}$ and $\log (L_{\rm [OII]}/L_{\rm H\alpha }) \sim -0.22^{+0.13}_{-0.15}$ for our sample, ionization parameters log (U) < −2 and electron densities $\log (\rm n_e / {\rm [cm^{-3}]}) \sim 2.5-3$ are required. The former is consistent with galaxies at z ∼ 2−3, however lower than at z > 6. The latter may be slightly higher than expected given the galaxies’ specific SFR. The analysis of this pilot sample suggests that typical log (M/M⊙) > 9 galaxies at z ∼ 4.5 to have broadly similar ISM properties as their descendants at z ∼ 2 and suggest a strong evolution of ISM properties since the epoch of reionization at z > 6.

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  5. Aims. The dust content of normal galaxies and the dust mass density (DMD) at high- z ( z  > 4) are unconstrained given the source confusion and the sensitivity limitations of previous observations. The ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early times (ALPINE), which targeted 118 ultra-violet (UV)-selected star-forming galaxies at 4.4 <  z  < 5.9, provides a new opportunity to tackle this issue for the first time with a statistically robust dataset. Methods. We exploited the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) fluxes of 23 galaxies individually detected in their continuum emission, as well as stacked continuum images, to measure the dust content of the 118 UV-selected ALPINE galaxies. We focused on the dust scaling relations and, by comparison with predictions from chemical evolution models, we probed the evolutionary stage of UV-selected galaxies at high- z . By using the observed correlation between the UV luminosity and the dust mass, we estimated the DMD of UV-selected galaxies at z  ∼ 5, weighting the galaxies by means of the UV luminosity function. The derived DMD is compared with the value we estimated from ten ALPINE galaxies blindly detected in the FIR continuum, at the redshift of the ALPINE targets. Results. Our ALMA survey allows the exploration for the first time of the dust content in normal star-forming galaxies at z  > 4 in a statistically robust sample of sources. The comparison of the observed dust scaling relations with chemical evolution models suggests that ALPINE galaxies are not likely progenitors of disc galaxies, but of intermediate- and low-mass proto-spheroids, resulting in present-day bulges of spiral or elliptical galaxies. Interestingly, this conclusion is in line with the independent morphological analysis that shows that the majority (∼70%) of the dust-continuum detected galaxies have a disturbed morphology. The DMD obtained at z  ∼ 5 from UV-selected sources is ∼30% of the value obtained from blind FIR-selected sources, showing that the UV selection misses the most dust-rich, UV-obscured galaxies. 
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  6. Star formation rate (SFR) measurements at z  > 4 have relied mostly on the rest-frame far-ultraviolet (FUV) observations. The corrections for dust attenuation based on the IRX- β relation are highly uncertain and are still debated in the literature. Hence, rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) observations are necessary to constrain the dust-obscured component of the SFR. In this paper, we exploit the rest-frame FIR continuum observations collected by the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early times (ALPINE) to directly constrain the obscured SFR in galaxies at 4.4 <  z  < 5.9. We used stacks of continuum images to measure average infrared luminosities taking both detected and undetected sources into account. Based on these measurements, we measured the position of the main sequence of star-forming galaxies and the specific SFR (sSFR) at z  ∼ 4.5 and z  ∼ 5.5. We find that the main sequence and sSFR do not significantly evolve between z  ∼ 4.5 and z  ∼ 5.5, as opposed to lower redshifts. We developed a method to derive the obscured SFR density (SFRD) using the stellar masses or FUV-magnitudes as a proxy of FIR fluxes measured on the stacks and combining them with the galaxy stellar mass functions and FUV luminosity functions from the literature. We obtain consistent results independent of the chosen proxy. We find that the obscured fraction of SFRD is decreasing with increasing redshift, but even at z  ∼ 5.5 it constitutes around 61% of the total SFRD. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    We present ALMA observations of a merging system at z  ∼ 4.57, observed as a part of the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early times (ALPINE) survey. Combining ALMA [CII]158  μ m and far-infrared continuum data with multi-wavelength ancillary data, we find that the system is composed of two massive ( M ⋆  ≳ 10 10   M ⊙ ) star-forming galaxies experiencing a major merger (stellar mass ratio r mass  ≳ 0.9) at close spatial (∼13 kpc; projected) and velocity (Δ v  <  300 km s −1 ) separations, and two additional faint narrow [CII]-emitting satellites. The overall system belongs to a larger scale protocluster environment and is coincident to one of its overdensity peaks. Additionally, ALMA reveals the presence of [CII] emission arising from a circumgalactic gas structure, extending up to a diameter-scale of ∼30 kpc. Our morpho-spectral decomposition analysis shows that about 50% of the total flux resides between the individual galaxy components, in a metal-enriched gaseous envelope characterised by a disturbed morphology and complex kinematics. Similarly to observations of shock-excited [CII] emitted from tidal tails in local groups, our results can be interpreted as a possible signature of interstellar gas stripped by strong gravitational interactions, with a possible contribution from material ejected by galactic outflows and emission triggered by star formation in small faint satellites. Our findings suggest that mergers could be an efficient mechanism of gas mixing in the circumgalactic medium around high- z galaxies, and thus play a key role in the galaxy baryon cycle at early epochs. 
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  8. Context. The Lyman- α line in the ultraviolet (UV) and the [CII] line in the far-infrared (FIR) are widely used tools to identify galaxies in the early Universe and to obtain insights into interstellar medium (ISM) properties in high-redshift galaxies. By combining data obtained with ALMA in band 7 at ∼320 GHz as part of the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early Times (ALPINE) with spectroscopic data from DEIMOS at the Keck Observatory, VIMOS and FORS2 at the Very Large Telescope, we assembled a unique sample of 53 main-sequence star-forming galaxies at 4.4 <   z  <  6 in which we detect both the Lyman- α line in the UV and the [CII] line in the FIR. Aims. The goal of this paper is to constrain the properties of the Ly α emission in these galaxies in relation to other properties of the ISM. Methods. We used [CII], observed with ALMA, as a tracer of the systemic velocity of the galaxies, and we exploited the available optical spectroscopy to obtain the Ly α -[CII] and ISM-[CII] velocity offsets. Results. We find that 90% of the selected objects have Ly α -[CII] velocity offsets in the range 0 <  Δ v Ly α  − [CII]  <  400 km s −1 , in line with the few measurements available so far in the early Universe, and significantly smaller than those observed at lower redshifts. At the same time, we observe ISM-[CII] offsets in the range −500 <  Δ v ISM−[CII]  <  0 km s −1 , in line with values at all redshifts, which we interpret as evidence for outflows in these galaxies. We find significant anticorrelations between Δ v Ly α −[CII] and the Ly α rest-frame equivalent width EW 0 (Ly α ) (or equivalently, the Ly α escape fraction f esc (Ly α )): galaxies that show smaller Δ v Ly α −[CII] have larger EW 0 (Ly α ) and f esc (Ly α ). Conclusions. We interpret these results in the framework of available models for the radiative transfer of Ly α photons. According to the models, the escape of Ly α photons would be favored in galaxies with high outflow velocities, producing large EW 0 (Ly α ) and small Δ v Ly α -[CII] , in agreement with our observations. The uniform shell model would also predict that the Ly α escape in galaxies with slow outflows (0 <   v out  <  300 km s −1 ) is mainly determined by the neutral hydrogen column density (NHI) along the line of sight, while the alternative model by Steidel et al. (2010, ApJ, 717, 289) would more highly favor a combination of NHI at the systemic velocity and covering fraction as driver of the Ly α escape. We suggest that the increase in Ly α escape that is observed in the literature between z  ∼ 2 and z  ∼ 6 is not due to a higher incidence of fast outflows at high redshift, but rather to a decrease in average NHI along the line of sight, or alternatively, a decrease in HI covering fraction. 
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