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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 16, 2023
  2. Abstract Stellar evolution models calculate convective boundaries using either the Schwarzschild or Ledoux criterion, but confusion remains regarding which criterion to use. Here we present a 3D hydrodynamical simulation of a convection zone and adjacent radiative zone, including both thermal and compositional buoyancy forces. As expected, regions that are unstable according to the Ledoux criterion are convective. Initially, the radiative zone adjacent to the convection zone is Schwarzschild unstable but Ledoux stable due to a composition gradient. Over many convective overturn timescales, the convection zone grows via entrainment. The convection zone saturates at the size originally predicted by the Schwarzschild criterion, although in this final state the Schwarzschild and Ledoux criteria agree. Therefore, the Schwarzschild criterion should be used to determine the size of stellar convection zones, except possibly during short-lived evolutionary stages in which entrainment persists.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Proton radioactivity was discovered exactly 50 years ago. First, this nuclear decay mode sets the limit of existence on the nuclear landscape on the neutron-deficient side. Second, it comprises fundamental aspects of both quantum tunnelling as well as the coupling of (quasi)bound quantum states with the continuum in mesoscopic systems such as the atomic nucleus. Theoretical approaches can start either from bound-state nuclear shell-model theory or from resonance scattering. Thus, proton-radioactivity guides merging these types of theoretical approaches, which is of broader relevance for any few-body quantum system. Here, we report experimental measurements of proton-emission branches from an isomeric state in 54m Ni, which were visualized in four dimensions in a newly developed detector. We show that these decays, which carry an unusually high angular momentum, ℓ = 5 and ℓ = 7, respectively, can be approximated theoretically with a potential model for the proton barrier penetration and a shell-model calculation for the overlap of the initial and final wave functions.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022