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  1. Abstract

    We compare systems with single giant planets to systems with multiple giant planets using a catalog of planets from a high-precision radial velocity survey of FGKM stars. Our comparison focuses on orbital properties, planet masses, and host-star properties. We use hierarchical methods to model the orbital eccentricity distributions of giant singles and giant multiples, and find that the distributions are distinct. The multiple giant planets typically have moderate eccentricities and their eccentricity distribution extends toe= 0.47 (90th percentile), while the single giant planets have a pileup of nearly circular orbits and a long tail that extends toe= 0.77. We determine that the stellar hosts of multiple giants are distinctly more metal rich than the hosts of solitary giants, with respective mean metallicities of 0.228 ± 0.027 versus 0.129 ± 0.019 dex. We measure the distinct occurrence distributions of single and multiple giants with respect to orbital separation, and find that single gas giants have a ∼2.3σsignificant hot Jupiter (a< 0.06) pileup not seen among multigiant systems. We find that the median mass (Msini) of giants in multiples is nearly double that of single giants (1.71MJversus 0.92MJ). We find that giant planets in the same system have correlated masses, analogous to the “peas in a pod” effect seen among less-massive planets.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Extreme precision radial velocity (EPRV) measurements contend with internal noise (instrumental systematics) and external noise (intrinsic stellar variability) on the road to 10 cm s−1“exo-Earth” sensitivity. Both of these noise sources are well-probed using “Sun-as-a-star” RVs and cross-instrument comparisons. We built the Solar Calibrator (SoCal), an autonomous system that feeds stable, disk-integrated sunlight to the recently commissioned Keck Planet Finder (KPF) at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With SoCal, KPF acquires signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) ∼ 1200,R= 98,000 optical (445–870 nm) spectra of the Sun in 5 s exposures at unprecedented cadence for an EPRV facility using KPF’s fast readout mode (<16 s between exposures). Daily autonomous operation is achieved by defining an operations loop using state machine logic. Data affected by clouds are automatically flagged using a reliable quality control metric derived from simultaneous irradiance measurements. Comparing solar data across the growing global network of EPRV spectrographs with solar feeds will allow EPRV teams to disentangle internal and external noise sources and benchmark spectrograph performance. To facilitate this, all SoCal data products are immediately available to the public on the Keck Observatory Archive. We compared SoCal RVs to contemporaneous RVs from NEID, the only other immediately public EPRV solar data set. We find agreement at the 30–40 cm s−1level on timescales of several hours, which is comparable to the combined photon-limited precision. Data from SoCal were also used to assess a detector problem and wavelength calibration inaccuracies associated with KPF during early operations. Long-term SoCal operations will collect upwards of 1000 solar spectra per six-hour day using KPF’s fast readout mode, enabling stellar activity studies at high S/N on our nearest solar-type star.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    An intriguing pattern among exoplanets is the lack of detected planets between approximately 1.5Rand 2.0R. One proposed explanation for this “radius gap” is the photoevaporation of planetary atmospheres, a theory that can be tested by studying individual planetary systems. Kepler-105 is an ideal system for such testing due to the ordering and sizes of its planets. Kepler-105 is a Sun-like star that hosts two planets straddling the radius gap in a rare architecture with the larger planet closer to the host star (Rb= 2.53 ± 0.07R,Pb= 5.41 days,Rc= 1.44 ± 0.04R,Pc= 7.13 days). If photoevaporation sculpted the atmospheres of these planets, then Kepler-105b would need to be much more massive than Kepler-105c to retain its atmosphere, given its closer proximity to the host star. To test this hypothesis, we simultaneously analyzed radial velocities and transit-timing variations of the Kepler-105 system, measuring disparate masses ofMb= 10.8 ± 2.3M(ρb= 3.68 ± 0.84 g cm−3) andMc= 5.6 ± 1.2M(ρc= 10.4 ± 2.39 g cm−3). Based on these masses, the difference in gas envelope content of the Kepler-105 planets could be entirely due to photoevaporation (in 76% of scenarios), although other mechanisms like core-powered mass loss could have played a role for some planet albedos.

     
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  4. Abstract We use a high-precision radial velocity survey of FGKM stars to study the conditional occurrence of two classes of planets: close-in small planets (0.023–1 au, 2–30 M ⊕ ) and distant giant planets (0.23–10 au, 30–6000 M ⊕ ). We find that 41 − 13 + 15 % of systems with a close-in, small planet also host an outer giant, compared to 17.6 − 1.9 + 2.4 % for stars irrespective of small planet presence. This implies that small planet hosts may be enhanced in outer giant occurrences compared to all stars with 1.7 σ significance. Conversely, we estimate that 42 − 13 + 17 % of cold giant hosts also host an inner small planet, compared to 27.6 − 4.8 + 5.8 % of stars irrespective of cold giant presence. We also find that more massive and close-in giant planets are not associated with small inner planets. Specifically, our sample indicates that small planets are less likely to have outer giant companions more massive than approximately 120 M ⊕ and within 0.3–3 au, than to have less massive or more distant giant companions, with ∼2.2 σ confidence. This implies that massive gas giants within 0.3–3 au may suppress inner small planet formation. Additionally, we compare the host-star metallicity distributions for systems with only small planets and those with both small planets and cold giants. In agreement with previous studies, we find that stars in our survey that only host small planets have a metallicity distribution that is consistent with the broader solar-metallicity-median sample, while stars that host both small planets and gas giants are distinctly metal rich with ∼2.3 σ confidence. 
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  5. Abstract The observed correlation between outer giant planets and inner super-Earths is emerging as an important constraint on planet formation theories. In this study, we focus on Kepler-167, which is currently the only system known to contain both inner transiting super-Earths and a confirmed outer transiting gas giant companion beyond 1 au. Using long-term radial velocity monitoring, we measure the mass of the gas giant Kepler-167e ( P = 1071 days) to be 1.01 − 0.15 + 0.16 M J , thus confirming it as a Jupiter analog. We refit the Kepler photometry to obtain updated radii for all four planets. Using a planetary structure model, we estimate that Kepler-167e contains 66 ± 19 M ⊕ of solids and is significantly enriched in metals relative to its solar-metallicity host star. We use these new constraints to explore the broader question of how systems like Kepler-167 form in the pebble accretion framework for giant planet core formation. We utilize simple disk evolution models to demonstrate that more massive and metal-rich disks, which are the most favorable sites for giant planet formation, can also deliver enough solids to the inner disk to form systems of super-Earths. We use these same models to constrain the nature of Kepler-167's protoplanetary disk and find that it likely contained ≳300 M ⊕ of dust and was ≳40 au in size. These values overlap with the upper end of the observed dust mass and size distributions of Class 0 and I disks and are also consistent with the observed occurrence rate of Jupiter analogs around Sun-like stars. 
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  7. Abstract

    The detection of satellites around extrasolar planets, so called exomoons, remains a largely unexplored territory. In this work, we study the potential of detecting these elusive objects from radial velocity monitoring of self-luminous, directly imaged planets. This technique is now possible thanks to the development of dedicated instruments combining the power of high-resolution spectroscopy and high-contrast imaging. First, we demonstrate a sensitivity to satellites with a mass ratio of 1%–4% at separations similar to the Galilean moons from observations of a brown-dwarf companion (HR 7672 B;Kmag= 13; 0.″7 separation) with the Keck Planet Imager and Characterizer (R∼ 35,000 in theKband) at the W. M. Keck Observatory. Current instrumentation is therefore already sensitive to large unresolved satellites that could be forming from gravitational instability akin to binary star formation. Using end-to-end simulations, we then estimate that future instruments such as the Multi-Object Diffraction-limited High-resolution Infrared Spectrograph, planned for the Thirty Meter Telescope, should be sensitive to satellites with mass ratios of ∼10−4. Such small moons would likely form in a circumplanetary disk similar to the Jovian satellites in the solar system. Looking for the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect could also be an interesting pathway to detecting the smallest moons on short orbital periods. Future exomoon discoveries will allow precise mass measurements of the substellar companions that they orbit and provide key insight into the formation of exoplanets. They would also help constrain the population of habitable Earth-sized moons orbiting gas giants in the habitable zone of their stars.

     
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