skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Gall, C."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Massive black holes (BHs) at the centres of massive galaxies are ubiquitous. The population of BHs within dwarf galaxies, on the other hand, is evasive. Dwarf galaxies are thought to harbour BHs with proportionally small masses, including intermediate mass BHs, with masses 102
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 31, 2023
  2. Abstract We present multiwavelength observations of the Type II SN 2020pni. Classified at ∼1.3 days after explosion, the object showed narrow (FWHM intensity <250 km s −1 ) recombination lines of ionized helium, nitrogen, and carbon, as typically seen in flash-spectroscopy events. Using the non-LTE radiative transfer code CMFGEN to model our first high-resolution spectrum, we infer a progenitor mass-loss rate of M ̇ = ( 3.5 – 5.3 ) × 10 − 3 M ⊙ yr −1 (assuming a wind velocity of v w = 200 km s −1 ), estimated at a radius of R in = 2.5 × 10 14 cm. In addition, we find that the progenitor of SN 2020pni was enriched in helium and nitrogen (relative abundances in mass fractions of 0.30–0.40 and 8.2 × 10 −3 , respectively). Radio upper limits are also consistent with dense circumstellar material (CSM) and a mass-loss rate of M ̇ > 5 × 10 − 4 M ☉ yr − 1 . During the initial 4 days after first light, we also observe an increase in velocity of the hydrogen lines (from ∼250 to ∼1000 km s −1 ), suggesting complex CSM. The presence of dense and confinedmore »CSM, as well as its inhomogeneous structure, indicates a phase of enhanced mass loss of the progenitor of SN 2020pni during the last year before explosion. Finally, we compare SN 2020pni to a sample of other shock-photoionization events. We find no evidence of correlations among the physical parameters of the explosions and the characteristics of the CSM surrounding the progenitors of these events. This favors the idea that the mass loss experienced by massive stars during their final years could be governed by stochastic phenomena and that, at the same time, the physical mechanisms responsible for this mass loss must be common to a variety of different progenitors.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  3. Abstract We present 75 near-infrared (NIR; 0.8−2.5 μ m) spectra of 34 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae (SESNe) obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project-II (CSP-II), encompassing optical spectroscopic Types IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL. The spectra range in phase from pre-maximum to 80 days past maximum. This unique data set constitutes the largest NIR spectroscopic sample of SESNe to date. NIR spectroscopy provides observables with additional information that is not available in the optical. Specifically, the NIR contains the strong lines of He i and allows a more detailed look at whether Type Ic supernovae are completely stripped of their outer He layer. The NIR spectra of SESNe have broad similarities, but closer examination through statistical means reveals a strong dichotomy between NIR “He-rich” and “He-poor” SNe. These NIR subgroups correspond almost perfectly to the optical IIb/Ib and Ic/Ic-BL types, respectively. The largest difference between the two groups is observed in the 2 μ m region, near the He i λ 2.0581 μ m line. The division between the two groups is not an arbitrary one along a continuous sequence. Early spectra of He-rich SESNe show much stronger He i λ 2.0581 μ m absorption compared to the He-poor group, but withmore »a wide range of profile shapes. The same line also provides evidence for trace amounts of He in half of our SNe in the He-poor group.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  4. Radiative transfer models of two transitional type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been produced using the abundance stratification technique. These two objects - designated SN 2007on and SN 2011iv - both exploded in the same galaxy, NGC 1404, which allows for a direct comparison. SN 2007on synthesized 0.25 M_{⊙} of 56Ni and was less luminous than SN 2011iv, which produced 0.31 M_{⊙} of 56Ni. SN 2007on had a lower central density (ρc) and higher explosion energy (Ekin ˜1.3 ± 0.3 × 1051erg) than SN 2011iv, and it produced less nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) elements (0.06 M_{⊙}). Whereas, SN 2011iv had a larger ρc, which increased the electron capture rate in the lowest velocity regions, and produced 0.35 M_{⊙} of stable NSE elements. SN 2011iv had an explosion energy of ˜Ekin ˜0.9 ± 0.2 × 1051erg. Both objects had an ejecta mass consistent with the Chandrasekhar mass (Ch-mass), and their observational properties are well described by predictions from delayed-detonation explosion models. Within this framework, comparison to the sub-luminous SN 1986G indicates SN 2011iv and SN 1986G have different transition densities (ρtr) but similar ρc. Whereas SN 1986G and SN 2007on had a similar ρtr but different ρc. Finally, we examine themore »colour-stretch parameter sBV versus Lmax relation and determine that the bulk of SNe Ia (including the sub-luminous ones) are consistent with Ch-mass delayed-detonation explosions, where the main parameter driving the diversity is ρtr. We also find ρc to be driving the second-order scatter observed at the faint end of the luminosity-width relationship.« less