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  1. There has been considerable controversy about pre- versus postsynaptic expression of memory-related long-term potentiation (LTP), with corresponding disputes about underlying mechanisms. We report here an instance in male mice, in which both types of potentiation are expressed but in separate branches of the same hippocampal afferent. Induction of LTP in the dentate gyrus (DG) branch of the lateral perforant path (LPP) reduces paired-pulse facilitation, is blocked by antagonism of cannabinoid receptor type 1, and is not affected by suppression of postsynaptic actin polymerization. These observations are consistent with presynaptic expression. The opposite pattern of results was obtained in the LPP branch that innervates the distal dendrites of CA3: LTP did not reduce paired-pulse facilitation, was unaffected by the cannabinoid receptor blocker, and required postsynaptic actin filament assembly. Differences in the two LPP termination sites were also noted for frequency facilitation of synaptic responses, an effect that was reproduced in a two-step simulation by small adjustments to vesicle release dynamics. These results indicate that different types of glutamatergic neurons impose different forms of filtering and synaptic plasticity on their afferents. They also suggest that inputs are routed to, and encoded by, different sites within the hippocampus depending upon the pattern of activity arriving over the parent axon.

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  2. Abstract

    Supernova (SN) SN H0pe is a gravitationally lensed, triply imaged, Type Ia SN (SN Ia) discovered in James Webb Space Telescope imaging of the PLCK G165.7+67.0 cluster of galaxies. Well-observed multiply imaged SNe provide a rare opportunity to constrain the Hubble constant (H0), by measuring the relative time delay between the images and modeling the foreground mass distribution. SN H0pe is located atz= 1.783 and is the first SN Ia with sufficient light-curve sampling and long enough time delays for anH0inference. Here we present photometric time-delay measurements and SN properties of SN H0pe. Using JWST/NIRCam photometry, we measure time delays of Δtab=116.69.3+10.8observer-frame days and Δtcb=48.64.0+3.6observer-frame days relative to the last image to arrive (image 2b; all uncertainties are 1σ), which corresponds to a ∼5.6% uncertainty contribution forH0assuming 70 km s−1Mpc−1. We also constrain the absolute magnification of each image toμa=4.31.8+1.6,μb=7.62.6+3.6,μc=6.41.5+1.6by comparing the observed peak near-IR magnitude of SN H0pe to the nonlensed population of SNe Ia.

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  3. Abstract

    We present UV and/or optical observations and models of SN 2023ixf, a type II supernova (SN) located in Messier 101 at 6.9 Mpc. Early time (flash) spectroscopy of SN 2023ixf, obtained primarily at Lick Observatory, reveals emission lines of Hi, Hei/ii, Civ, and Niii/iv/vwith a narrow core and broad, symmetric wings arising from the photoionization of dense, close-in circumstellar material (CSM) located around the progenitor star prior to shock breakout. These electron-scattering broadened line profiles persist for ∼8 days with respect to first light, at which time Doppler broadened the features from the fastest SN ejecta form, suggesting a reduction in CSM density atr≳ 1015cm. The early time light curve of SN 2023ixf shows peak absolute magnitudes (e.g.,Mu= −18.6 mag,Mg= −18.4 mag) that are ≳2 mag brighter than typical type II SNe, this photometric boost also being consistent with the shock power supplied from CSM interaction. Comparison of SN 2023ixf to a grid of light-curve and multiepoch spectral models from the non-LTE radiative transfer codeCMFGENand the radiation-hydrodynamics codeHERACLESsuggests dense, solar-metallicity CSM confined tor= (0.5–1) × 1015cm, and a progenitor mass-loss rate ofṀ=102Myr−1. For the assumed progenitor wind velocity ofvw= 50 km s−1, this corresponds to enhanced mass loss (i.e.,superwindphase) during the last ∼3–6 yr before explosion.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  4. Abstract We present multiwavelength observations of the Type II SN 2020pni. Classified at ∼1.3 days after explosion, the object showed narrow (FWHM intensity <250 km s −1 ) recombination lines of ionized helium, nitrogen, and carbon, as typically seen in flash-spectroscopy events. Using the non-LTE radiative transfer code CMFGEN to model our first high-resolution spectrum, we infer a progenitor mass-loss rate of M ̇ = ( 3.5 – 5.3 ) × 10 − 3 M ⊙ yr −1 (assuming a wind velocity of v w = 200 km s −1 ), estimated at a radius of R in = 2.5 × 10 14 cm. In addition, we find that the progenitor of SN 2020pni was enriched in helium and nitrogen (relative abundances in mass fractions of 0.30–0.40 and 8.2 × 10 −3 , respectively). Radio upper limits are also consistent with dense circumstellar material (CSM) and a mass-loss rate of M ̇ > 5 × 10 − 4 M ☉ yr − 1 . During the initial 4 days after first light, we also observe an increase in velocity of the hydrogen lines (from ∼250 to ∼1000 km s −1 ), suggesting complex CSM. The presence of dense and confined CSM, as well as its inhomogeneous structure, indicates a phase of enhanced mass loss of the progenitor of SN 2020pni during the last year before explosion. Finally, we compare SN 2020pni to a sample of other shock-photoionization events. We find no evidence of correlations among the physical parameters of the explosions and the characteristics of the CSM surrounding the progenitors of these events. This favors the idea that the mass loss experienced by massive stars during their final years could be governed by stochastic phenomena and that, at the same time, the physical mechanisms responsible for this mass loss must be common to a variety of different progenitors. 
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  5. Massive black holes (BHs) at the centres of massive galaxies are ubiquitous. The population of BHs within dwarf galaxies, on the other hand, is evasive. Dwarf galaxies are thought to harbour BHs with proportionally small masses, including intermediate mass BHs, with masses 102 more » « less
  6. Abstract We present 75 near-infrared (NIR; 0.8−2.5 μ m) spectra of 34 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae (SESNe) obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project-II (CSP-II), encompassing optical spectroscopic Types IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL. The spectra range in phase from pre-maximum to 80 days past maximum. This unique data set constitutes the largest NIR spectroscopic sample of SESNe to date. NIR spectroscopy provides observables with additional information that is not available in the optical. Specifically, the NIR contains the strong lines of He i and allows a more detailed look at whether Type Ic supernovae are completely stripped of their outer He layer. The NIR spectra of SESNe have broad similarities, but closer examination through statistical means reveals a strong dichotomy between NIR “He-rich” and “He-poor” SNe. These NIR subgroups correspond almost perfectly to the optical IIb/Ib and Ic/Ic-BL types, respectively. The largest difference between the two groups is observed in the 2 μ m region, near the He i λ 2.0581 μ m line. The division between the two groups is not an arbitrary one along a continuous sequence. Early spectra of He-rich SESNe show much stronger He i λ 2.0581 μ m absorption compared to the He-poor group, but with a wide range of profile shapes. The same line also provides evidence for trace amounts of He in half of our SNe in the He-poor group. 
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  7. Abstract We present the Young Supernova Experiment Data Release 1 (YSE DR1), comprised of processed multicolor PanSTARRS1 griz and Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) gr photometry of 1975 transients with host–galaxy associations, redshifts, spectroscopic and/or photometric classifications, and additional data products from 2019 November 24 to 2021 December 20. YSE DR1 spans discoveries and observations from young and fast-rising supernovae (SNe) to transients that persist for over a year, with a redshift distribution reaching z ≈ 0.5. We present relative SN rates from YSE’s magnitude- and volume-limited surveys, which are consistent with previously published values within estimated uncertainties for untargeted surveys. We combine YSE and ZTF data, and create multisurvey SN simulations to train the ParSNIP and SuperRAENN photometric classification algorithms; when validating our ParSNIP classifier on 472 spectroscopically classified YSE DR1 SNe, we achieve 82% accuracy across three SN classes (SNe Ia, II, Ib/Ic) and 90% accuracy across two SN classes (SNe Ia, core-collapse SNe). Our classifier performs particularly well on SNe Ia, with high (>90%) individual completeness and purity, which will help build an anchor photometric SNe Ia sample for cosmology. We then use our photometric classifier to characterize our photometric sample of 1483 SNe, labeling 1048 (∼71%) SNe Ia, 339 (∼23%) SNe II, and 96 (∼6%) SNe Ib/Ic. YSE DR1 provides a training ground for building discovery, anomaly detection, and classification algorithms, performing cosmological analyses, understanding the nature of red and rare transients, exploring tidal disruption events and nuclear variability, and preparing for the forthcoming Vera C. Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time. 
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  8. Abstract We present panchromatic observations and modeling of supernova (SN) 2020tlf, the first normal Type II-P/L SN with confirmed precursor emission, as detected by the Young Supernova Experiment transient survey. Pre-SN activity was detected in riz -bands at −130 days and persisted at relatively constant flux until first light. Soon after discovery, “flash” spectroscopy of SN 2020tlf revealed narrow, symmetric emission lines that resulted from the photoionization of circumstellar material (CSM) shed in progenitor mass-loss episodes before explosion. Surprisingly, this novel display of pre-SN emission and associated mass loss occurred in a red supergiant (RSG) progenitor with zero-age main-sequence mass of only 10–12 M ⊙ , as inferred from nebular spectra. Modeling of the light curve and multi-epoch spectra with the non-LTE radiative-transfer code CMFGEN and radiation-hydrodynamical code HERACLES suggests a dense CSM limited to r ≈ 10 15 cm, and mass-loss rate of 10 −2 M ⊙ yr −1 . The luminous light-curve plateau and persistent blue excess indicates an extended progenitor, compatible with an RSG model with R ⋆ = 1100 R ⊙ . Limits on the shock-powered X-ray and radio luminosity are consistent with model conclusions and suggest a CSM density of ρ < 2 × 10 −16 g cm −3 for distances from the progenitor star of r ≈ 5 × 10 15 cm, as well as a mass-loss rate of M ̇ < 1.3 × 10 − 5 M ☉ yr − 1 at larger distances. A promising power source for the observed precursor emission is the ejection of stellar material following energy disposition into the stellar envelope as a result of gravity waves emitted during either neon/oxygen burning or a nuclear flash from silicon combustion. 
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    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) observations of the Type Icn supernova (SN Icn) 2022ann, the fifth member of its newly identified class of SNe. Its early optical spectra are dominated by narrow carbon and oxygen P-Cygni features with absorption velocities of ∼800 km s−1; slower than other SNe Icn and indicative of interaction with a dense, H/He-poor circumstellar medium (CSM) that is outflowing slower than typical Wolf–Rayet wind velocities of >1000 km s−1. We identify helium in NIR spectra 2 weeks after maximum and in optical spectra at 3 weeks, demonstrating that the CSM is not fully devoid of helium. Unlike other SNe Icn, the spectra of SN 2022ann never develop broad features from SN ejecta, including in the nebular phase. Compared to other SNe Icn, SN 2022ann has a low luminosity (o-band absolute magnitude of ∼−17.7), and evolves slowly. The bolometric light curve is well-modelled by 4.8 M⊙ of SN ejecta interacting with 1.3 M⊙ of CSM. We place an upper limit of 0.04 M⊙ of 56Ni synthesized in the explosion. The host galaxy is a dwarf galaxy with a stellar mass of 107.34 M⊙ (implied metallicity of log(Z/Z⊙) ≈ 0.10) and integrated star-formation rate of log (SFR) = −2.20 M⊙ yr−1; both lower than 97 per cent of galaxies observed to produce core-collapse supernovae, although consistent with star-forming galaxies on the galaxy Main Sequence. The low CSM velocity, nickel and ejecta masses, and likely low-metallicity environment disfavour a single Wolf–Rayet progenitor star. Instead, a binary companion is likely required to adequately strip the progenitor and produce a low-velocity outflow.

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