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Creators/Authors contains: "Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar"

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  3. Polarized resonant soft X-ray scattering (P-RSoXS) has emerged as a powerful synchrotron-based tool that combines the principles of X-ray scattering and X-ray spectroscopy. P-RSoXS provides unique sensitivity to molecular orientation and chemical heterogeneity in soft materials such as polymers and biomaterials. Quantitative extraction of orientation information from P-RSoXS pattern data is challenging, however, because the scattering processes originate from sample properties that must be represented as energy-dependent three-dimensional tensors with heterogeneities at nanometre to sub-nanometre length scales. This challenge is overcome here by developing an open-source virtual instrument that uses graphical processing units (GPUs) to simulate P-RSoXS patterns from real-space material representations with nanoscale resolution. This computational framework – calledCyRSoXS( – is designed to maximize GPU performance, including algorithms that minimize both communication and memory footprints. The accuracy and robustness of the approach are demonstrated by validating against an extensive set of test cases, which include both analytical solutions and numerical comparisons, demonstrating an acceleration of over three orders of magnitude relative to the current state-of-the-art P-RSoXS simulation software. Such fast simulations open up a variety of applications that were previously computationally unfeasible, including pattern fitting, co-simulation with the physical instrument foroperandoanalytics, data exploration and decision support, data creation and integration into machine learning workflows, and utilization in multi-modal data assimilation approaches. Finally, the complexity of the computational framework is abstracted away from the end user by exposingCyRSoXSto Python usingPybind. This eliminates input/output requirements for large-scale parameter exploration and inverse design, and democratizes usage by enabling seamless integration with a Python ecosystem ( that can include parametric morphology generation, simulation result reduction, comparison with experiment and data fitting approaches.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. Accelerating the development of π-conjugated molecules for applications such as energy generation and storage, catalysis, sensing, pharmaceuticals, and (semi)conducting technologies requires rapid and accurate evaluation of the electronic, redox, or optical properties. While high-throughput computational screening has proven to be a tremendous aid in this regard, machine learning (ML) and other data-driven methods can further enable orders of magnitude reduction in time while at the same time providing dramatic increases in the chemical space that is explored. However, the lack of benchmark datasets containing the electronic, redox, and optical properties that characterize the diverse, known chemical space of organic π-conjugated molecules limits ML model development. Here, we present a curated dataset containing 25k molecules with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) evaluated properties that include frontier molecular orbitals, ionization energies, relaxation energies, and low-lying optical excitation energies. Using the dataset, we train a hierarchy of ML models, ranging from classical models such as ridge regression to sophisticated graph neural networks, with molecular SMILES representation as input. We observe that graph neural networks augmented with contextual information allow for significantly better predictions across a wide array of properties. Our best-performing models also provide an uncertainty quantification for the predictions. To democratize access to the data and trained models, an interactive web platform has been developed and deployed. 
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  5. Using a reliable and accurate method to phenotype disease incidence and severity is essential to unravel the complex genetic architecture of disease resistance in plants, and to develop disease resistant cultivars. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) involve phenotyping large numbers of accessions, and have been used for a myriad of traits. In field studies, genetic accessions are phenotyped across multiple environments and replications, which takes a significant amount of labor and resources. Deep Learning (DL) techniques can be effective for analyzing image-based tasks; thus DL methods are becoming more routine for phenotyping traits to save time and effort. This research aims to conduct GWAS on sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean [ Glycine max L. (Merr.)] using disease severity from both visual field ratings and DL-based (using images) severity ratings collected from 473 accessions. Images were processed through a DL framework that identified soybean leaflets with SDS symptoms, and then quantified the disease severity on those leaflets into a few classes with mean Average Precision of 0.34 on unseen test data. Both visual field ratings and image-based ratings identified significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with disease resistance. These significant SNP markers are either in the proximity of previously reported candidate genes for SDS or near potentially novel candidate genes. Four previously reported SDS QTL were identified that contained a significant SNPs, from this study, from both a visual field rating and an image-based rating. The results of this study provide an exciting avenue of using DL to capture complex phenotypic traits from images to get comparable or more insightful results compared to subjective visual field phenotyping of traits for disease symptoms. 
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