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Creators/Authors contains: "Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
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  3. Accelerating the development of π-conjugated molecules for applications such as energy generation and storage, catalysis, sensing, pharmaceuticals, and (semi)conducting technologies requires rapid and accurate evaluation of the electronic, redox, or optical properties. While high-throughput computational screening has proven to be a tremendous aid in this regard, machine learning (ML) and other data-driven methods can further enable orders of magnitude reduction in time while at the same time providing dramatic increases in the chemical space that is explored. However, the lack of benchmark datasets containing the electronic, redox, and optical properties that characterize the diverse, known chemical space of organic π-conjugated molecules limits ML model development. Here, we present a curated dataset containing 25k molecules with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) evaluated properties that include frontier molecular orbitals, ionization energies, relaxation energies, and low-lying optical excitation energies. Using the dataset, we train a hierarchy of ML models, ranging from classical models such as ridge regression to sophisticated graph neural networks, with molecular SMILES representation as input. We observe that graph neural networks augmented with contextual information allow for significantly better predictions across a wide array of properties. Our best-performing models also provide an uncertainty quantification for the predictions.more »To democratize access to the data and trained models, an interactive web platform has been developed and deployed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 21, 2023
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  6. Using a reliable and accurate method to phenotype disease incidence and severity is essential to unravel the complex genetic architecture of disease resistance in plants, and to develop disease resistant cultivars. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) involve phenotyping large numbers of accessions, and have been used for a myriad of traits. In field studies, genetic accessions are phenotyped across multiple environments and replications, which takes a significant amount of labor and resources. Deep Learning (DL) techniques can be effective for analyzing image-based tasks; thus DL methods are becoming more routine for phenotyping traits to save time and effort. This research aims to conduct GWAS on sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean [ Glycine max L. (Merr.)] using disease severity from both visual field ratings and DL-based (using images) severity ratings collected from 473 accessions. Images were processed through a DL framework that identified soybean leaflets with SDS symptoms, and then quantified the disease severity on those leaflets into a few classes with mean Average Precision of 0.34 on unseen test data. Both visual field ratings and image-based ratings identified significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with disease resistance. These significant SNP markers are either in the proximity of previously reportedmore »candidate genes for SDS or near potentially novel candidate genes. Four previously reported SDS QTL were identified that contained a significant SNPs, from this study, from both a visual field rating and an image-based rating. The results of this study provide an exciting avenue of using DL to capture complex phenotypic traits from images to get comparable or more insightful results compared to subjective visual field phenotyping of traits for disease symptoms.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 21, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 18, 2023
  8. Ion concentration polarization (ICP) accomplishes preconcentration for bioanalysis by localized depletion of electrolyte ions, thereby generating a gradient in electric field strength that facilitates electrokinetic focusing of charged analytes by their electromigration against opposing fluid flow. Such ICP focusing has been shown to accomplish up to a million-fold enrichment of nucleic acids and proteins in single-stage preconcentrators. However, the rate at which the sample volume is swept is limited, requiring several hours to achieve these high enrichment factors. This limitation is caused by two factors. First, an ion depleted zone (IDZ) formed at a planar membrane or electrode may not extend across the full channel cross section under the flow rate employed for focusing, thereby allowing the analyte to “leak” past the IDZ. Second, within the IDZ, large fluid vortices lead to mixing, which decreases the efficiency of analyte enrichment and worsens with increased channel dimensions. Here, we address these challenges with faradaic ICP (fICP) at a three-dimensional (3D) electrode comprising metallic microbeads. This 3D-electrode distributes the IDZ, and therefore, the electric field gradient utilized for counter-flow focusing across the full height of the fluidic channel, and its large area, microstructured surface supports smaller vortices. An additional bed of insulatingmore »microbeads restricts flow patterns and supplies a large area for surface conduction of ions through the IDZ. Finally, the resistance of this secondary bed enhances focusing by locally strengthening sequestering forces. This easy-to-build platform lays a foundation for the integration of enrichment with user-defined packed bed and electrode materials.« less