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  1. In this work, the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperature on the ferroelectric polarization in zirconium-doped hafnium oxide (HZO) was studied. To maximize remnant polarization (2P r ), in-plane tensile stress was induced by tungsten electrodes under optimal RTA temperatures. We observed an increase in 2P r with RTA temperature, likely due to an increased proportion of the polar ferroelectric phase in HZO. The HZO capacitors annealed at 400°C did not exhibit any ferroelectric behavior, whereas the HZO capacitors annealed at 800°C became highly leaky and shorted for voltages above 1 V. On the other hand, annealing at 700 °C produced HZO capacitors with a record-high 2P r of ∼ 64 μ C cm −2  at a relatively high frequency of 111 kHz. These ferroelectric capacitors have also demonstrated impressive endurance and retention characteristics, which will greatly benefit neuromorphic computing applications.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 25, 2023
  2. Memristor devices fabricated using the chalcogenide Ge 2 Te 3 phase change thin films in a metal-insulator-metal structure are characterized using thermal and electrical stimuli in this study. Once the thermal and electrical stimuli are applied, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) analyses are performed to determine structural and compositional changes in the devices. Electrical measurements on these devices showed a need for increasing compliance current between cycles to initiate switching from low resistance state (LRS) to high resistance state (HRS). The measured resistance in HRS also exhibited a steady decrease with increase in the compliance current. High resolution TEM studies on devices in HRS showed the presence of residual crystalline phase at the top-electrode/dielectric interface, which may explain the observed dependence on compliance current. XEDS study revealed diffusion related processes at dielectric-electrode interface characterized, by the separation of Ge 2 Te 3 into Ge- and Te- enriched interfacial layers. This was also accompanied by spikes in O level at these regions. Furthermore, in-situ heating experiments on as-grown thin films revealed a deleterious effect of Ti adhesive layer, wherein the in-diffusion of Ti leads to further degradation of the dielectric layer. This experimental physics-based study showsmore »that the large HRS/LRS ratio below the current compliance limit of 1 mA and the ability to control the HRS and LRS by varying the compliance current are attractive for memristor and neuromorphic computing applications.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 26, 2023