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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 22, 2022
  2. Abstract A workshop on The Next Generation Gamma-Ray Source sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics at the Department of Energy, was held November 17-19, 2016 in Bethesda, Maryland. The goals of the workshop were to identify basic and applied research opportunities at the frontiers of nuclear physics that would be made possible by the beam capabilities of an advanced laser Compton beam facility. To anchor the scientific vision to realistically achievable beam specifications using proven technologies, the workshop brought together experts in the fields of electron accelerators, lasers, and optics to examine the technical options for achieving the beammore »specifications required by the most compelling parts of the proposed research programs. An international assembly of participants included current and prospective γ -ray beam users, accelerator and light-source physicists, and federal agency program managers. Sessions were organized to foster interactions between the beam users and facility developers, allowing for information sharing and mutual feedback between the two groups. The workshop findings and recommendations are summarized in this whitepaper.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 2, 2022
  3. Massive growth of the microfluidics field has triggered numerous advances in focusing, separating, ordering, concentrating, and mixing of microparticles. Microfluidic systems capable of performing these functions are rapidly finding applications in industrial, environmental, and biomedical fields. Passive and label-free methods are one of the major categories of such systems that have received enormous attention owing to device operational simplicity and low costs. With new platforms continuously being proposed, our aim here is to provide an updated overview of the state of the art for passive label-free microparticle separation, with emphasis on performance and operational conditions. In addition to the nowmore »common separation approaches using Newtonian flows, such as deterministic lateral displacement, pinched flow fractionation, cross-flow filtration, hydrodynamic filtration, and inertial microfluidics, we also discuss separation approaches using non-Newtonian, viscoelastic flow. We then highlight the newly emerging approach based on shear-induced diffusion, which enables direct processing of complex samples such as untreated whole blood. Finally, we hope that an improved understanding of label-free passive sorting approaches can lead to sophisticated and useful platforms toward automation in industrial, environmental, and biomedical fields.« less
  4. Memristive devices are promising candidates to emulate biological computing. However, the typical switching voltages (0.2-2 V) in previously described devices are much higher than the amplitude in biological counterparts. Here we demonstrate a type of diffusive memristor, fabricated from the protein nanowires harvested from the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, that functions at the biological voltages of 40-100 mV. Memristive function at biological voltages is possible because the protein nanowires catalyze metallization. Artificial neurons built from these memristors not only function at biological action potentials (e.g., 100 mV, 1 ms) but also exhibit temporal integration close to that in biological neurons. The potential of using themore »memristor to directly process biosensing signals is also demonstrated.« less
  5. Measuring the behavior of redox-active molecules in space and time is crucial for understanding chemical and biological systems and for developing new technologies. Optical schemes are noninvasive and scalable, but usually have a slow response compared to electrical detection methods. Furthermore, many fluorescent molecules for redox detection degrade in brightness over long exposure times. Here, we show that the photoluminescence of “pixel” arrays of monolayer MoS 2 can image spatial and temporal changes in redox molecule concentration. Because of the strong dependence of MoS 2 photoluminescence on doping, changes in the local chemical potential substantially modulate the photoluminescence of MoSmore »2 , with a sensitivity of 0.9 mV / Hz on a 5 μm × 5 μm pixel, corresponding to better than parts-per-hundred changes in redox molecule concentration down to nanomolar concentrations at 100-ms frame rates. This provides a new strategy for visualizing chemical reactions and biomolecules with a two-dimensional material screen.« less
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023