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  1. Quantum computing promises to provide machine learning with computational advantages. However, noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices pose engineering challenges to realizing quantum machine learning (QML) advantages. Recently, a series of QML computational models inspired by the noise-tolerant dynamics on the brain have emerged as a means to circumvent the hardware limitations of NISQ devices. In this article, we introduce a quantum version of a recurrent neural network (RNN), a well-known model for neural circuits in the brain. Our quantum RNN (qRNN) makes use of the natural Hamiltonian dynamics of an ensemble of interacting spin-1/2 particles as a means for computation. In the limit where the Hamiltonian is diagonal, the qRNN recovers the dynamics of the classical version. Beyond this limit, we observe that the quantum dynamics of the qRNN provide it quantum computational features that can aid it in computation. To this end, we study a qRNN based on arrays of Rydberg atoms, and show that the qRNN is indeed capable of replicating the learning of several cognitive tasks such as multitasking, decision making, and long-term memory by taking advantage of several key features of this platform such as interatomic species interactions, and quantum many-body scars.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. A prerequisite for social coordination is bidirectional communication between teammates, each playing two roles simultaneously: as receptive listeners and expressive speakers. For robots working with humans in complex situations with multiple goals that differ in importance, failure to fulfill the expectation of either role could undermine group performance due to misalignment of values between humans and robots. Specifically, a robot needs to serve as an effective listener to infer human users’ intents from instructions and feedback and as an expressive speaker to explain its decision processes to users. Here, we investigate how to foster effective bidirectional human-robot communications in the context of value alignment—collaborative robots and users form an aligned understanding of the importance of possible task goals. We propose an explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) system in which a group of robots predicts users’ values by taking in situ feedback into consideration while communicating their decision processes to users through explanations. To learn from human feedback, our XAI system integrates a cooperative communication model for inferring human values associated with multiple desirable goals. To be interpretable to humans, the system simulates human mental dynamics and predicts optimal explanations using graphical models. We conducted psychological experiments to examine the core componentsmore »of the proposed computational framework. Our results show that real-time human-robot mutual understanding in complex cooperative tasks is achievable with a learning model based on bidirectional communication. We believe that this interaction framework can shed light on bidirectional value alignment in communicative XAI systems and, more broadly, in future human-machine teaming systems.« less
  3. Bayesian hybrid models fuse physics-based insights with machine learning constructs to correct for systematic bias. In this paper, we compare Bayesian hybrid models against physics-based glass-box and Gaussian process black-box surrogate models. We consider ballistic firing as an illustrative case study for a Bayesian decision-making workflow. First, Bayesian calibration is performed to estimate model parameters. We then use the posterior distribution from Bayesian analysis to compute optimal firing conditions to hit a target via a single-stage stochastic program. The case study demonstrates the ability of Bayesian hybrid models to overcome systematic bias from missing physics with fewer data than the pure machine learning approach. Ultimately, we argue Bayesian hybrid models are an emerging paradigm for data-informed decision-making under parametric and epistemic uncertainty.
  4. Realizing quantum speedup for practically relevant, computationally hard problems is a central challenge in quantum information science. Using Rydberg atom arrays with up to 289 qubits in two spatial dimensions, we experimentally investigate quantum algorithms for solving the Maximum Independent Set problem. We use a hardware-efficient encoding associated with Rydberg blockade, realize closed-loop optimization to test several variational algorithms, and subsequently apply them to systematically explore a class of graphs with programmable connectivity. We find the problem hardness is controlled by the solution degeneracy and number of local minima, and experimentally benchmark the quantum algorithm’s performance against classical simulated annealing. On the hardest graphs, we observe a superlinear quantum speedup in finding exact solutions in the deep circuit regime and analyze its origins.
  5. Opioid overdose rescue is very time-sensitive. Hence, drone-delivered naloxone has the potential to be a transformative innovation due to its easily deployable and flexible nature. We formulate a Markov Decision Process (MDP) model to dispatch the appropriate drone after an overdose request arrives and to relocate the drone to its next waiting location after having completed its current task. Since the underlying optimization problem is subject to the curse of dimensionality, we solve it using ad-hoc state aggregation and evaluate it through a simulation with higher granularity. Our simulation-based comparative study is based on emergency medical service data from the state of Indiana. We compare the optimal policy resulting from the scaled-down MDP model with a myopic policy as the baseline. We consider the impact of drone type and service area type on outcomes, which offers insights into the performance of the MDP suboptimal policy under various settings.
  6. Stochastic gradient Langevin dynamics (SGLD) and stochastic gradient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (SGHMC) are two popular Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms for Bayesian inference that can scale to large datasets, allowing to sample from the posterior distribution of the parameters of a statistical model given the input data and the prior distribution over the model parameters. However, these algorithms do not apply to the decentralized learning setting, when a network of agents are working collaboratively to learn the parameters of a statistical model without sharing their individual data due to privacy reasons or communication constraints. We study two algorithms: Decentralized SGLD (DE-SGLD) and Decentralized SGHMC (DE-SGHMC) which are adaptations of SGLD and SGHMC methods that allow scaleable Bayesian inference in the decentralized setting for large datasets. We show that when the posterior distribution is strongly log-concave and smooth, the iterates of these algorithms converge linearly to a neighborhood of the target distribution in the 2-Wasserstein distance if their parameters are selected appropriately. We illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms on decentralized Bayesian linear regression and Bayesian logistic regression problems
  7. ABSTRACT We present chemical abundances for 21 elements (from Li to Eu) in 150 metal-poor Galactic stars spanning −4.1 < [Fe/H] < −2.1. The targets were selected from the SkyMapper survey and include 90 objects with [Fe/H] ≤ −3 of which some 15 have [Fe/H] ≤ −3.5. When combining the sample with our previous studies, we find that the metallicity distribution function has a power-law slope of Δ(log N)/Δ[Fe/H] = 1.51 ± 0.01 dex per dex over the range −4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ −3. With only seven carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in the sample, we again find that the selection of metal-poor stars based on SkyMapper filters is biased against highly carbon-rich stars for [Fe/H] > −3.5. Of the 20 objects for which we could measure nitrogen, 11 are nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor (NEMP) stars. Within our sample, the high NEMP fraction (55 per cent ± 21 per cent) is compatible with the upper range of predicted values (between 12 per cent and 35 per cent). The chemical abundance ratios [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] exhibit similar trends to previous studies of metal-poor stars and Galactic chemical evolution models. We report the discovery of nine new r-I stars, four new r-II stars, one of which is the most metal-poor known, nine low-α starsmore »with [α/Fe] ≤ 0.15 as well as one unusual star with [Zn/Fe] = +1.4 and [Sr/Fe] = +1.2 but with normal [Ba/Fe]. Finally, we combine our sample with literature data to provide the most extensive view of the early chemical enrichment of the Milky Way Galaxy.« less