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  1. Vedaldi A., Bischof H. (Ed.)
  2. We report a flexible and wearable bacteria-powered battery in which four functional yarns are placed in parallel for biological energy harvesting. A current collecting yarn is sandwiched between two conductive/hydrophilic active yarns including electricity-generating bacteria while a polymer-passivated cathodic yarn is located next to one of the active yarns to form a biological fuel cell configuration. The device uses Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a biocatalyst to produce a maximum power of 17μW/cm3 and current density 327μA/cm3, which are enough to power small-power applications. This yarn-structured biobattery can be potentially woven or knitted into an energy storage fabric to provide amore »higher power for smart textiles. Furthermore, sweat generated from the human body can be a potential fuel to support bacterial viability, providing the long-term operation of the battery.« less
  3. In this paper, we consider the numerical approximation for a phase field model of the coupled two-phase free flow and two-phase porous media flow. This model consists of Cahn– Hilliard–Navier–Stokes equations in the free flow region and Cahn–Hilliard–Darcy equations in the porous media region that are coupled by seven interface conditions. The coupled system is decoupled based on the interface conditions and the solution values on the interface from the previous time step. A fully discretized scheme with finite elements for the spatial discretization is developed to solve the decoupled system. In order to deal with the difficulties arising frommore »the interface conditions, the decoupled scheme needs to be constructed appropriately for the interface terms, and a modified discrete energy is introduced with an interface component. Furthermore, the scheme is linearized and energy stable. Hence, at each time step one need only solve a linear elliptic system for each of the two decoupled equations. Stability of the model and the proposed method is rigorously proved. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the features of the proposed numerical method and verify the theoretical conclusions.« less
  4. Nanoparticle therapeutic delivery is influenced by many factors including physical, chemical, and biophysical properties along with local vascular conditions. In recent years, nanoparticles of various shapes have been fabricated and have shown significant impact on transport efficiency. Identification of which nanoparticle shape helps to improve the therapeutic delivery process allows for enhanced therapeutic effects, yet is hard to be quantified in vivo due to the complex nature of the in vivo environment. In this work, we turn to biological models as a guide for informing improved nanoparticle therapeutic delivery, and quantify the contribution of various factors on delivery efficiency. Heremore »we show that with a mimetic blood vessel, improved therapeutic delivery is achieved using long filamentous rod nanoparticles under low pressure conditions. When considering medium pressure conditions, a combination of nanoparticle shapes presents improved therapeutic delivery over the treatment time-course starting with long filamentous rod nanoparticles, followed by short rod nanoparticles. Conditions of high pressure required a combination of short rod nanoparticles, followed by spherical nanoparticles to achieve enhanced therapeutic delivery. Overall, improvement of therapeutic delivery via nanoparticle carriers is likely to require a combination of nanoparticle shapes administered at different times over the treatment time-course, given patient specific conditions.« less