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  1. North Atlantic cooling during Heinrich Stadial 1 triggered an east-west precipitation dipole over the tropical Indian Ocean.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 6, 2024
  2. Abstract We analyze the role of mesoscale heat advection in a mixed layer (ML) heat budget, using a regional high-resolution coupled model with realistic atmospheric forcing and an idealized ocean component. The model represents two regions in the Southern Ocean, one with strong ocean currents and the other with weak ocean currents. We conclude that heat advection by oceanic currents creates mesoscale anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST), while the atmospheric turbulent heat fluxes dampen these SST anomalies. This relationship depends on the spatial scale, the strength of the currents, and the mixed layer depth (MLD). At the oceanic mesoscale, there is a positive correlation between the advection and SST anomalies, especially when the currents are strong overall. For large-scale zonal anomalies, the ML-integrated advection determines the heating/cooling of the ML, while the SST anomalies tend to be larger in size than the advection and the spatial correlation between these two fields is weak. The effects of atmospheric forcing on the ocean are modulated by the MLD variability. The significance of Ekman advection and diabatic heating is secondary to geostrophic advection except in summer when the MLD is shallow. This study links heat advection, SST anomalies, and air–sea heat fluxesmore »at ocean mesoscales, and emphasizes the overall dominance of intrinsic oceanic variability in mesoscale air–sea heat exchange in the Southern Ocean.« less
  3. Abstract

    Lignocellulose forms plant cell walls, and its three constituent polymers, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, represent the largest renewable organic carbon pool in the terrestrial biosphere. Insights into biological lignocellulose deconstruction inform understandings of global carbon sequestration dynamics and provide inspiration for biotechnologies seeking to address the current climate crisis by producing renewable chemicals from plant biomass. Organisms in diverse environments disassemble lignocellulose, and carbohydrate degradation processes are well defined, but biological lignin deconstruction is described only in aerobic systems. It is currently unclear whether anaerobic lignin deconstruction is impossible because of biochemical constraints or, alternatively, has not yet been measured. We applied whole cell-wall nuclear magnetic resonance, gel-permeation chromatography and transcriptome sequencing to interrogate the apparent paradox that anaerobic fungi (Neocallimastigomycetes), well-documented lignocellulose degradation specialists, are unable to modify lignin. We find that Neocallimastigomycetes anaerobically break chemical bonds in grass and hardwood lignins, and we further associate upregulated gene products with the observed lignocellulose deconstruction. These findings alter perceptions of lignin deconstruction by anaerobes and provide opportunities to advance decarbonization biotechnologies that depend on depolymerizing lignocellulose.

  4. Joseph (Ed.)
  5. Abstract Quantum many-body systems away from equilibrium host a rich variety of exotic phenomena that are forbidden by equilibrium thermodynamics. A prominent example is that of discrete time crystals 1–8 , in which time-translational symmetry is spontaneously broken in periodically driven systems. Pioneering experiments have observed signatures of time crystalline phases with trapped ions 9,10 , solid-state spin systems 11–15 , ultracold atoms 16,17 and superconducting qubits 18–20 . Here we report the observation of a distinct type of non-equilibrium state of matter, Floquet symmetry-protected topological phases, which are implemented through digital quantum simulation with an array of programmable superconducting qubits. We observe robust long-lived temporal correlations and subharmonic temporal response for the edge spins over up to 40 driving cycles using a circuit of depth exceeding 240 and acting on 26 qubits. We demonstrate that the subharmonic response is independent of the initial state, and experimentally map out a phase boundary between the Floquet symmetry-protected topological and thermal phases. Our results establish a versatile digital simulation approach to exploring exotic non-equilibrium phases of matter with current noisy intermediate-scale quantum processors 21 .
  6. ABSTRACT Submillimetre galaxies represent a rapid growth phase of both star formation and massive galaxies. Mapping SMGs in galaxy protoclusters provides key insights into where and how these extreme starbursts take place in connections with the assembly of the large-scale structure in the early Universe. We search for SMGs at 850 $\rm{\mu m}$ using JCMT/SCUBA-2 in two massive protoclusters at z = 2.24, BOSS1244 and BOSS1542, and detect 43 and 54 sources with S850 > 4 mJy at the 4σ level within an effective area of 264 arcmin2, respectively. We construct the intrinsic number counts and find that the abundance of SMGs is 2.0 ± 0.3 and 2.1 ± 0.2 times that of the general fields, confirming that BOSS1244 and BOSS1542 contain a higher fraction of dusty galaxies with strongly enhanced star formation. The volume densities of the SMGs are estimated to be ∼15–30 times the average, significantly higher than the overdensity factor (∼6) traced by H α emission-line galaxies (HAEs). More importantly, we discover a prominent offset between the spatial distributions of the two populations in these two protoclusters – SMGs are mostly located around the high-density regions of HAEs, and few are seen inside these regions. This finding may have revealed for the first time the occurrence of violentmore »star formation enhancement in the outskirts of the HAE density peaks, likely driven by the boosting of gas supplies and/or starburst triggering events. Meanwhile, the lack of SMGs inside the most overdense regions at z ∼ 2 implies a transition to the environment disfavouring extreme starbursts.« less
  7. We prove the existence and uniqueness of positive analytical solutions with positive initial data to the mean field equation (the Dyson equation) of the Dyson Brownian motion through the complex Burgers equation with a force term on the upper half complex plane. These solutions converge to a steady state given by Wigner’s semicircle law. A unique global weak solution with nonnegative initial data to the Dyson equation is obtained, and some explicit solutions are given by Wigner’s semicircle laws. We also construct a bi-Hamiltonian structure for the system of real and imaginary components of the complex Burgers equation (coupled Burgers system). We establish a kinetic formulation for the coupled Burgers system and prove the existence and uniqueness of entropy solutions. The coupled Burgers system in Lagrangian variable naturally leads to two interacting particle systems, the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou model with nearest-neighbor interactions, and the Calogero–Moser model. These two particle systems yield the same Lagrangian dynamics in the continuum limit.