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  1. This method is adapted and updated from methods originally published in Grottoli et al. (2004) and is based on the original methods of Folch & Stanley (1957), and Bligh & Dyer (1959). There are five parts to extracting lipids from ground corals: 1) grind and sub-sample the coral and store at -80 °C until ready to extract, 2) freeze-dry the sample, 3) extract the lipids from the freeze-dried samples, 4) standardize the lipid concentration to ash-free dry weight (AFDW), and 5) resuspend the extracted lipid for long-term storage and possible later analysis of lipid classes or isotopes. The lipid extractionmore »procedure must be conducted in a fume hood with the sash as low as possible with the researcher wearing protective eyewear, gloves, and lab coat at all times. Important considerations regarding lipid analysis were gained from reading Chapter 1.3 “Lipid extraction, storage, and sample handling” from the textbook Lipid Analysis by Christie (2003). This method was originally developed by Andréa Grottoli and refined by Rowan McLachlan (06-11-18) with the guidance of Dr. Agus Muñoz-Garcia at The Ohio State University. This protocol was written by Rowan McLachlan (03-12-2020). dx.doi.org/10.17504/protocols.io.bc4qiyvw« less
  2. Abstract On 2019 August 14 at 21:10:39 UTC, the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration (LVC) detected a possible neutron star–black hole merger (NSBH), the first ever identified. An extensive search for an optical counterpart of this event, designated GW190814, was undertaken using the Dark Energy Camera on the 4 m Victor M. Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Target of Opportunity interrupts were issued on eight separate nights to observe 11 candidates using the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope’s Goodman High Throughput Spectrograph in order to assess whether any of these transients was likely to be an optical counterpartmore »of the possible NSBH merger. Here, we describe the process of observing with SOAR, the analysis of our spectra, our spectroscopic typing methodology, and our resultant conclusion that none of the candidates corresponded to the gravitational wave merger event but were all instead other transients. Finally, we describe the lessons learned from this effort. Application of these lessons will be critical for a successful community spectroscopic follow-up program for LVC observing run 4 (O4) and beyond.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Abstract The Surface Enhancement of the IceTop air-shower array will include the addition of radio antennas and scintillator panels, co-located with the existing ice-Cherenkov tanks and covering an area of about 1 km 2 . Together, these will increase the sensitivity of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to the electromagnetic and muonic components of cosmic-ray-induced air showers at the South Pole. The inclusion of the radio technique necessitates an expanded set of simulation and analysis tools to explore the radio-frequency emission from air showers in the 70 MHz to 350 MHz band. In this paper we describe the software modules thatmore »have been developed to work with time- and frequency-domain information within IceCube's existing software framework, IceTray, which is used by the entire IceCube collaboration. The software includes a method by which air-shower simulation, generated using CoREAS, can be reused via waveform interpolation, thus overcoming a significant computational hurdle in the field.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. As technology increases in the global arena and the necessity for a more diverse group of individuals to fulfill engineering and computing roles increases, it is important to engage more students in computing majors and roles. Identity has proven to be an important lens through which researchers can better understand how to engage students in these fields. In particular, our framing for computing identity includes students’ self-perceptions about recognition, interest, and performance/competence. Using survey data, this study examines the computing identity of high achieving underserved students in computer science (CS), computer engineering (CE), and information technology (IT). For these students,more »we compare the constructs between men and women, computing fields, and freshmen and juniors/seniors. Based on preliminary data, results show that female participants had less of a computing identity than male students, specifically with respect to computing recognition and overall computing identity. Students in IT programs had less of an overall computing identity than students in CS and CE. Finally, freshmen were lower on their overall computing identities and specifically performance/competence beliefs and interest. These results suggest that even within computing programs, students differ in their computing identities. Furthermore, there are different constructs related to computing identity that vary for different subgroups of students. While these results are insightful, future work will compare the computing identities of high achieving underserved students with a larger population of computing students as well as strategies for building their computing identities.« less
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023